Science and Technology

In the offing: A urine test to detect brain tumours

The Hindu:Science - 03/02/2023
The survival rate for brain tumours has remained almost unchanged for over 20 years.

How did the Howrah Bridge get its iconic design?

The Hindu:Science - 03/02/2023
The bridge project was conceptualised and debated over more than 25 years.

Sugar is processed differently in the brains of obesity-prone vs. obesity-resistant rats

Science Daily - 03/02/2023
A new study tracked what happens in the brains of rats in real time in the brain when presented with glucose, a type of sugar, labeled with a tracer. The tracer allowed the researchers to measure this new sugar in the brain.

New ice is like a snapshot of liquid water

Science Daily - 03/02/2023
Scientists have discovered a new form of ice that more closely resembles liquid water than any other and may hold the key to understanding this most famous of liquids.

Study links adoption of electric vehicles with less air pollution and improved health

Science Daily - 03/02/2023
A team of researchers have now begun to document the actual impact of electric vehicle adoption in the first study to use real-world data to link electric cars, air pollution and health. Leveraging publicly available datasets, the researchers analyzed a 'natural experiment' occurring in California as residents in the state rapidly transitioned to electric cars, or light-duty zero emissions vehicles (ZEVs). The team compared data on total ZEV registration, air pollution levels and asthma-related emergency room visits across the state between 2013 to 2019. As ZEV adoption increased within a given zip code, local air pollution levels and emergency room visits dropped.

Evolution of wheat spikes since the Neolithic revolution

Science Daily - 03/02/2023
Around 12,000 years ago, the Neolithic revolution radically changed the economy, diet and structure of the first human societies in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East. With the beginning of the cultivation of cereals -- such as wheat and barley -- and the domestication of animals, the first cities emerged in a new social context marked by a productive economy. Now, a study analyses the evolution of wheat spikes since its cultivation began by the inhabitants of ancient Mesopotamia -- the cradle of agriculture -- between the Tigris and the Euphrates.

Streamlining the situation

Science Daily - 03/02/2023
Sometimes, the most complex problems can be solved with the simplest approaches. Such was the case for researchers as they tried to resolve a longstanding issue of fluid friction -- the resistance between an object moving through fluid, or conversely, a stationary object with fluid flowing around or through it. It's also known as drag.

This one-atom chemical reaction could transform drug discovery

Science Daily - 03/02/2023
Researchers have used single carbon atom doping to form four chemical bonds in one step. Gamma-lactams (cyclic molecules that are common in antibiotics) were easily synthetically accessible from alpha, beta-unsaturated amides (an important molecule in cancer progression). The team chemically modified an anti-seizure medication in 96% yield, highlighting the work's utility to otherwise synthetically complex aspects of pharmaceutical development. The results of this work could become foundational to drug discovery and development.

Researchers develop elastic material that is impervious to gases and liquids

Science Daily - 03/02/2023
An international team of researchers has developed a technique that uses liquid metal to create an elastic material that is impervious to both gases and liquids. Applications for the material include use as packaging for high-value technologies that require protection from gases, such as flexible batteries.

Entangled atoms cross quantum network from one lab to another

Science Daily - 03/02/2023
Trapped ions have previously only been entangled in one and the same laboratory. Now, teams have entangled two ions over a distance of 230 meters. The nodes of this network were housed in two labs at the Campus Technik to the west of Innsbruck, Austria. The experiment shows that trapped ions are a promising platform for future quantum networks that span cities and eventually continents.

Robot: I'm sorry. Human: I don't care anymore!

Science Daily - 03/02/2023
Humans are less forgiving of robots after multiple mistakes -- and the trust is difficult to get back, according to a new study.

Researchers discover that youth binge drinking is linked to gut microbiome changes

Science Daily - 03/02/2023
The alterations are linked with poor ability to recognise emotions and cravings to consume alcohol.

Just one quality conversation with a friend boosts daily well-being

Science Daily - 03/02/2023
Study shows just one quality conversation with a friend during the day makes you happier and less stressed by day's end.

Water crises due to climate change: more severe than previously thought

Science Daily - 02/02/2023
New data analyses indicate that previous models systematically underestimate how sensitively water availability reacts to certain changing climate parameters. An analysis of measurement data from over 9,500 hydrological catchments from all over the world shows that climate change can lead to local water crises to an even greater extent than previously expected.

Small isolated wetlands are pollution-catching powerhouses

Science Daily - 02/02/2023
Small isolated wetlands that are full for only part of the year are often the first to be removed for development or agriculture, but a new study shows that they can be twice as effective in protecting downstream lake or river ecosystems than if they were connected to them.

Forest trees find a new watery 'sweet spot' when CO2 is high

Science Daily - 02/02/2023
Trees living in conditions where the carbon dioxide (CO2) has been artificially elevated are likely to become more efficient in conserving water.

Genes responsible for coronary artery disease, world's No. 1 killer, identified

Science Daily - 02/02/2023
Coronary artery disease is the most common form of heart disease, affecting more than 20 million Americans. It's estimated to be responsible for 1 in 4 deaths in the United States each year. The new gene discovery opens the door to better treatments.

Hubble directly measures mass of a lone white dwarf

Science Daily - 02/02/2023
Astronomers have directly measured the mass of a single, isolated white dwarf -- the surviving core of a burned-out, Sun-like star. Researchers found that the white dwarf is 56 percent the mass of our Sun. This agrees with earlier theoretical predictions of the white dwarf's mass and corroborates current theories of how white dwarfs evolve as the end product of a typical star's evolution. The unique observation yields insights into theories of the structure and composition of white dwarfs.

Human brain organoids respond to visual stimuli when transplanted into adult rats

Science Daily - 02/02/2023
Researchers show that brain organoids -- clumps of lab-grown neurons -- can integrate with rat brains and respond to visual stimulation like flashing lights.

Study provides an explanation and potential solution for severe graft-versus-host disease

Science Daily - 02/02/2023
Researchers found that alterations in the gut microbiome that are linked to graft-versus-host disease severity are connected to an increase in oxygen levels in the intestine that follows immune-mediated intestinal damage. Pharmacologically reducing intestinal oxygen levels alleviated the microbial imbalance and reduced the severity of the condition in animal models.

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