Science and Technology

Antibiotic levels measurable in breath

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
A team of engineers and biotechnologists has shown in mammals that the concentration of antibiotics in the body can be determined using breath samples. The breath measurements also corresponded to the antibiotic concentrations in the blood. The team's biosensor -- a multiplex chip that allows simultaneous measurement of several specimens and test substances -- will in future enable personalized dosing of medicines against infectious diseases on-site and help to minimize the development of resistant strains of bacteria.

Access to essential cancer medicines unequal across countries

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
Patients in most countries of the world do not have access to basic cancer medicines, according to new research. Their article asked oncologists worldwide to list the most important cancer medicines and to describe whether patients could access these medicines in their home country.

Limiting the impacts of technology materials for the low carbon transition

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
Researchers have demonstrated how a detailed 'cradle to grave' evaluation at the outset of new metal mining explorations can greatly mitigate against negative environmental impacts.

Scientists find a key to hepatitis C entry into cells

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
Scientists describe the structure of a key protein on the surface of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and how it interacts with its receptor found on some human cells. The findings provide new leads for developing an HCV vaccine.

Scientists identify new therapeutic target in ovarian cancer subtype with poor prognosis

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
Mutations in the ARID1A gene are present in more than 50% of ovarian clear cell carcinomas (OCCC), for which effective treatments are lacking. Scientists discovered that loss of ARID1A function enhances a cellular stress response pathway that promotes survival of cancer cells, which become sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of this pathway.

A genetic brain disease reversed after birth

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
Researchers report that Kleefstra syndrome, a genetic disorder that leads to intellectual disability, can be reversed after birth in a mouse model of the disease. The series of experiments showed that postnatal treatment resulted in improved symptoms, both in the brain and in behavior.

Novel assay finds new mechanism underlying red blood cell aging

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
A multifaceted microfluidic in vitro assay is helping to identify the role of hypoxia on red blood cell aging via the biomechanical pathways. It holds promise for investigating hypoxic effects on the metastatic potential and relevant drug resistance of cancer cells. It also can be a useful tool to predict the mechanical performance of natural and artificial red blood cells for transfusion purposes and to further extend to red blood cells in other blood diseases and other cell types.

Drone helps researchers find fresh water in the sea at Easter Island

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
Researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of using drones to locate freshwater sources at Easter Island.

Compact amplifier could revolutionize optical communication

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
Researchers present a unique optical amplifier that is expected to revolutionize both space and fiber communication. The new amplifier offers high performance, is compact enough to integrate into a chip just millimeters in size, and -- crucially -- does not generate excess noise.

Elephants benefit from having older siblings, especially sisters

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
A study of semi-captive Asian elephants in Myanmar has found that calves benefit from having older sisters more than older brothers.

A new way to solve the ‘hardest of the hard’ computer problems

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
Researchers have found a way to make what is called reservoir computing work between 33 and a million times faster, with significantly fewer computing resources and less data input needed.

New AI tool accelerates discovery of truly new materials

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
Researchers have created an artificial intelligence tool that reduces the time and effort required to discover truly new materials, and has already led to the discovery of four new materials.

Japanese Knotweed extract could cut cancer risk of processed meat

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
Scientists have developed processed red meat that includes added natural substitutes which reduces the carcinogenic compound nitrite added to preserve meats. The range of sausages and hams had a mixture of plants and fruits added to them which included rosemary, green tea, and resveratrol -- an extract taken from Japanese Knotweed.

Western Ghats offer major additions to new flora

The Hindu:Science - 21/09/2021
Botanical Survey of India says 202 new species were discovered across the country in 2020

Pioneering EEG test could dramatically increase early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
Researchers have developed a two-minute passive-test, 'Fastball EEG', that measures people's brain waves in response to a series of images and could help expand early dementia diagnosis.

Modern activities follow the contours of ancient Teotihuacan

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
A lidar mapping study shows ancient residents of Teotihuacan moved astonishing quantities of soil and bedrock for construction and reshaped the landscape in a way that continues to influence the contours of modern activities in this part of Mexico. The paper also shows how Teotihuacan's engineers re-routed two rivers to align with points of astronomical significance, identified hundreds of previously unknown architectural features, and documented over 200 archaeological features that have been destroyed by mining and urbanization since the 1960s.

Research guides future of plastic waste chemical recycling

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
New research aims to ease the process of chemical recycling -- an emerging industry that could turn waste products back into natural resources by physically breaking plastic down into the smaller molecules it was originally produced from.

Loss of picky-eating fish threatens coral reef food webs

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
The networks of predator fish and their prey found on coral reefs all over the world are remarkably similar, and those predator fish are pickier eaters than previously thought. These delicate ecosystems become even more vulnerable when these specialized hunters go extinct.

New discovery about meteorites informs atmospheric entry threat assessment

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
Researchers watched fragments of two meteors as they ramped up the heat from room temperature to the temperature it reaches as it enters Earth's atmosphere and made a significant discovery. The vaporized iron sulfide leaves behind voids, making the material more porous. This information will help when predicting the weight of a meteor, its likelihood to break apart, and the subsequent damage assessment if it should land.

Physicists probe light smashups to guide future research

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
Light has no mass, but Europe's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can convert light's energy into massive particles. Physicists studied matter-generating collisions of light and showed the departure angle of their debris is subtly distorted by quantum interference patterns in the light prior to collision. Their findings will help physicists accurately interpret future experiments aimed at finding 'new physics' beyond the Standard Model.

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