Science and Technology

Artificial intelligence-based technology quickly identifies genetic causes of serious disease

Science Daily - 14/10/2021
An artificial intelligence (AI)-based technology rapidly diagnoses rare disorders in critically ill children with high accuracy. The benchmark finding foreshadows the next phase of medicine, where technology helps clinicians quickly determine the root cause of disease so they can give patients the right treatment sooner.

Brain activity patterns after trauma may predict long-term mental health

Science Daily - 14/10/2021
The way a person's brain responds to stress following a traumatic event, such as a car accident, may help to predict their long-term mental health outcomes, according to new research. The study followed more than 3,000 people for up to a year after exposure to a traumatic event.

Pesticide linked to chronic kidney disease

Science Daily - 14/10/2021
A commonly available pesticide has been associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Sense of smell is our most rapid warning system

Science Daily - 14/10/2021
The ability to detect and react to the smell of a potential threat is a precondition of our and other mammals' survival. Using a novel technique, researchers have been able to study what happens in the brain when the central nervous system judges a smell to represent danger. The study indicates that negative smells associated with unpleasantness or unease are processed earlier than positive smells and trigger a physical avoidance response.

Molecular mixing creates super stable glass

Science Daily - 14/10/2021
Researchers have succeeded in creating a new type of super-stable, durable glass with potential applications ranging from medicines, advanced digital screens, and solar cell technology. The study shows how mixing multiple molecules -- up to eight at a time -- can result in a material that performs as well as the best currently known glass formers.

Metabolic restoration in HIV-infected patients as a therapeutic approach

Science Daily - 14/10/2021
Medical researchers have shown that optimizing the energy metabolism of key cells enables people with HIV-1 to better defend themselves against the virus.

Unique underpinnings revealed for stomach’s acid pump

Science Daily - 14/10/2021
Researchers have improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms of a key protein that makes the stomach acidic. Their findings could lead to better drugs for stomach ulcers and shed light on the functions of similar proteins across the human body.

China set to send three astronauts on longest crewed mission yet

The Hindu:Science - 14/10/2021
The first crew who served a 90-day mission aboard the main Tianhe core module of the space station had returned in mid-September

Laser treatment could significantly improve glaucoma care in Africa, potentially at no extra cost

Science Daily - 14/10/2021
Laser treatment has the potential to transform the management of glaucoma in Africa, and to prevent more people from going irreversibly blind, particularly in regions with high disease prevalence and incidence, suggests new research. Conducted in Tanzania, the research is the first randomised controlled trial exploring the use of the laser treatment, Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty (SLT), for patients with glaucoma in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Surface chemistry reveals corrosive secrets

Science Daily - 14/10/2021
Interactions between iron, water, oxygen and ions quickly become complex. Scientists have now developed a more precise method to observe how iron minerals like rust form.

Improvements in microscopy home in on biology’s elusive details

Science Daily - 14/10/2021
Researchers are carrying the field of microscopy a step further, refining a technique known as cryogenic electron microscopy, or cryo-EM.

Smoke from nuclear war would devastate ozone layer, alter climate

Science Daily - 14/10/2021
The massive columns of smoke generated by a nuclear war would alter the world's climate for years and devastate the ozone layer, endangering both human health and food supplies, new research shows. The international study draws on newly developed computer climate modeling techniques to paint an even grimmer picture of a global nuclear war's aftermath than previous analyses.

Hormone widely used as an autism treatment shows no benefit

Science Daily - 14/10/2021
Oxytocin, a naturally occurring hormone that acts as a chemical messenger in the brain, showed no evidence of helping children with autism gain social skills, according to a large national study.

Quarks and antiquarks at high momentum shake the foundations of visible matter

Science Daily - 14/10/2021
Two independent studies have illuminated unexpected substructures in the fundamental components of all matter. Preliminary results using a novel tagging method could explain the origin of the longstanding nuclear paradox known as the EMC effect. Meanwhile, authors will share next steps after the recent observation of asymmetrical antimatter in the proton.

Underwater gardens boost coral diversity to stave off ‘biodiversity meltdown’

Science Daily - 14/10/2021
Researchers are building symbiotic 'underwater gardens' in the Pacific Ocean to show how different species of coral can work together to possibly restore degraded reefs.

Data supports early COVID-19 vaccination for essential workers

Science Daily - 14/10/2021
In areas where COVID-19 vaccines are limited, vaccinating essential workers before older adults can reduce infections and deaths, according to a modeling study.

Mosquito-based method to reduce dengue could be highly cost-effective in Singapore

Science Daily - 14/10/2021
New research suggests that dengue -- a viral infection spread by mosquitos -- could be suppressed in Singapore in a highly cost-effective manner through the release of mosquitos infected with the bacterium Wolbachia.

High BMI independently associated with death and longer ICU stay for COVID patients

Science Daily - 14/10/2021
In patients with COVID-19, a high body mass index (BMI) is associated with an increased risk of death and prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay, according to a new study.

Solving mystery of rare cancers directly caused by HIV

Science Daily - 14/10/2021
For nearly a decade, scientists have known that HIV integrates itself into genes in cells that have the potential to cause cancer. And when this happens in animals with other retroviruses, those animals often develop cancer. But, perplexingly and fortunately, that isn't regularly happening in people living with HIV. A new study reveals why doctors aren't seeing high rates of T cell lymphomas -- or cancers of the immune system -- in patients with HIV.

In neurodegenerative diseases, brain immune cells have a 'ravenous appetite' for sugar

Science Daily - 14/10/2021
At the beginning of neurodegenerative disease, the immune cells of the brain -- the 'microglia' -- take up glucose, a sugar molecule, to a much greater extent than hitherto assumed. These results are of great significance for the interpretation of brain scans depicting the distribution of glucose in the brain. Furthermore, such image-based data could potentially serve as a biomarker to non-invasively capture the response of microglia to therapeutic interventions in people with dementia.

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