Science and Technology

Dietary changes may treat pulmonary hypertension

Science Daily - 02/05/2024
Blood vessels in the lungs aren't like the others in the body. This difference becomes clear in pulmonary hypertension, in which only the lungs' blood vessels stiffen progressively, leading to chronic lung disease, heart failure and death. The underlying reasons for this organ-specific vessel stiffening remained a mystery until researchers made a surprising discovery about these blood vessel cells in patients with pulmonary hypertension -- they're hungry.

Scientists test for quantum nature of gravity

Science Daily - 02/05/2024
A new study reports on a deep new probe into the interface between the theories of gravity and quantum mechanics, using ultra-high energy neutrino particles detected by a particle detector set deep into the Antarctic glacier at the south pole.

'Baby asteroid' just a toddler in space years

Science Daily - 02/05/2024
An asteroid discovered last November is in fact a solar system toddler -- just 2-3 million years old, a Cornell University-led research team estimates using novel statistical calculations.

Stay active -- or get active -- to boost quality of life while aging, study suggests to middle-aged women

Science Daily - 02/05/2024
Consistent adherence to physical activity guidelines throughout middle-age is associated with a higher health-related quality of life in women, according to a new study.

Sugar-based catalyst upcycles carbon dioxide

Science Daily - 02/05/2024
New catalyst is made from an inexpensive, abundant metal and table sugar. Catalyst converts carbon dioxide (CO2) into carbon monoxide, a building block for producing a variety of useful chemicals including syngas. With recent advances in carbon capture technologies, post-combustion carbon capture is becoming a plausible option to help tackle the global climate change crisis. But how to handle the captured carbon remains an open-ended question. The new catalyst potentially could provide one solution for disposing the potent greenhouse gas by converting it into a more valuable product.

Deeper understanding of malaria parasite development unlocks opportunities to block disease spread

Science Daily - 02/05/2024
Natural malaria infections have been genetically analysed at a higher resolution than ever before, giving insights that could help understand and block transmission.

Synchronization between central circadian clock and circadian clocks of tissues preserves their functioning

Science Daily - 02/05/2024
Two complementary research articles reveal that central and peripheral circadian clocks coordinate to regulate the daily activity of skin and muscles. The coordination between the two clocks (central and peripheral) guarantees 50% of the circadian functions of tissues, including vital processes such as the cell cycle, DNA repair, mitochondrial activity, and metabolism. Synchronization between the central brain clock and peripheral ones prevents premature muscle aging and improves muscle function, suggesting new strategies to tackle age-related decline through circadian rhythm modulation.

When working out, males are programmed to burn more fat, while females recycle it--at least in rats

Science Daily - 02/05/2024
Vigorous exercise burns fat more in males than in females, but the benefits of exercise are broad for everyone.

Random robots are more reliable

Science Daily - 02/05/2024
New algorithm encourages robots to move more randomly to collect more diverse data for learning. In tests, robots started with no knowledge and then learned and correctly performed tasks within a single attempt. New model could improve safety and practicality of self-driving cars, delivery drones and more.

Significant new discovery in teleportation research -- Noise can improve the quality of quantum teleportation

Science Daily - 02/05/2024
Researchers succeeded in conducting an almost perfect quantum teleportation despite the presence of noise that usually disrupts the transfer of quantum state.

New approach in the synthesis of complex natural substances

Science Daily - 02/05/2024
Many natural substances possess interesting characteristics, and can form the basis of new active compounds in medicine. Terpenes, for example, are a group of substances, some of which are already used in therapies against cancer, malaria or epilepsy. They are found as fragrances in cosmetics or as flavorings in food, and form the basis of new medications: Terpenes are natural substances that occur in plants, insects and sea sponges. They are difficult to produce synthetically. However, chemists are now introducing a new method of synthesis.

New sensor detects errors in MRI scans

Science Daily - 02/05/2024
A new prototype sensor is capable of detecting errors in MRI scans using laser light and gas. The new sensor can thereby do what is impossible for current electrical sensors -- and hopefully pave the way for MRI scans that are better, cheaper and faster.

Toxic chemicals can be detected with new AI method

Science Daily - 02/05/2024
Researchers have developed an AI method that improves the identification of toxic chemicals -- based solely on knowledge of the molecular structure. The method can contribute to better control and understanding of the ever-growing number of chemicals used in society, and can also help reduce the amount of animal tests.

Researchers create new chemical compound to solve 120-year-old problem

Science Daily - 02/05/2024
Chemists have created a highly reactive chemical compound that has eluded scientists for more than 120 years. The discovery could lead to new drug treatments, safer agricultural products, and better electronics.

Unveiling a polarized world -- in a single shot

Science Daily - 02/05/2024
Researchers have developed a compact, single-shot polarization imaging system that can provide a complete picture of polarization. By using just two thin metasurfaces, the imaging system could unlock the vast potential of polarization imaging for a range of existing and new applications, including biomedical imaging, augmented and virtual reality systems and smart phones.

Activation of innate immunity: Important piece of the puzzle identified

Science Daily - 02/05/2024
Researchers have deciphered the complex interplay of various enzymes around the innate immune receptor toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), which plays an important role in defending our bodies against viruses.

Gene signatures from tissue-resident T cells as a predictive tool for melanoma patients

Science Daily - 02/05/2024
A new study has revealed an association between favorable survival outcomes for melanoma patients and the presence of higher populations of tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM). Data obtained from this study could be used not only for a TRM-based machine learning model with predictive powers for melanoma prognosis but could also elucidate the role TRM cells can play in the tumor immune microenvironment. This could guide the development of more effective and personalized anti-tumor immunotherapeutic treatment regimens for cancer patients.

To bend the curve of biodiversity loss, nature recovery must be integrated across all sectors

Science Daily - 02/05/2024
The alarming rates of biodiversity loss worldwide have made clear that the classical way of governing biodiversity recovery based on protected areas and programs for the protection of endangered species is not enough. To tackle this, almost 200 countries committed to the active 'mainstreaming' or integration of biodiversity targets into policies and plans across relevant sectors. However, research suggests that this has until now been largely ineffective due to non-binding commitments, vaguely formulated targets, 'add-on' biodiversity initiatives, and too few resources. 'Top down regulation is also needed,' say the authors.

This highly reflective black paint makes objects more visible to autonomous cars

Science Daily - 02/05/2024
Driving at night might be a scary challenge for a new driver, but with hours of practice it soon becomes second nature. For self-driving cars, however, practice may not be enough because the lidar sensors that often act as these vehicles' 'eyes' have difficulty detecting dark-colored objects. New research describes a highly reflective black paint that could help these cars see dark objects and make autonomous driving safer.

Malaria may shorten leukocyte telomeres among sub-Saharan Africans

Science Daily - 02/05/2024
The length of telomeres in white blood cells, known as leukocytes, varies significantly among sub-Saharan African populations, researchers report. Moreover, leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is negatively associated with malaria endemicity and only partly explained by genetic factors.

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