Science and Technology

Blood test could determine diabetes risks

Science Daily - 22/02/2024
A blood test could potentially be used to assess a patient's risk of type 2 diabetes, a new study has found.

New diagnostic tool for femoral osteoporosis improves the efficacy and viability of current methods

Science Daily - 22/02/2024
The new diagnostic methodology, which will enable anticipating and preventing a greater number of cases of femur fracture, is the result of research conducted under a public-private alliance.

Fecal microbiota transplant recommended for the majority of recurrent C. diff patients

Science Daily - 22/02/2024
In the first comprehensive evidence-based guideline on the use of fecal microbiota-based therapies for gastrointestinal disease, the American Gastroenterological Association recommends fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) for most patients with recurrent Clostridioides difficile (C. diff) infection. FMT therapies are not recommended as a treatment for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Sleep improves ability to recall complex events

Science Daily - 22/02/2024
Sleep helps consolidate our memory of complex associations, thus supporting the ability to complete memories of whole events.

Butterfly and moth genomes mostly unchanged despite 250 million years of evolution

Science Daily - 22/02/2024
Comparison of over 200 high-quality butterfly and moth genomes reveals key insights into their biology, evolution and diversification over the last 250 million years, as well as clues for conservation.

Teachers' growth mindset appears more important than warmth

Science Daily - 22/02/2024
Students tend to like friendly teachers, but they like those who believe they can improve even more, new research indicates. Students in a study still responded positively to instructors described as being cold but who also had a growth mindset, meaning they felt students' ability in a subject could improve by working hard and trying different strategies. The opposite was also true: more participants reacted negatively to a warm, smiling teacher when they stated a fixed mindset, which is a belief that innate abilities cannot be changed, such as someone being naturally good at math.

New evidence shows UK solar parks can provide for bees and butterflies

Science Daily - 22/02/2024
A new study shows that UK solar parks, if managed correctly, can provide vital resources to help stem the decline in the nation's bees and butterflies. The new research provides peer-reviewed field data of insect pollinators at solar parks in the UK, covering 15 sites.

Citizen science to mitigate the environmental crisis in the marine environment

Science Daily - 22/02/2024
Citizen science can help to improve conservation and management strategies for Mediterranean marine ecosystems, and to mitigate the impact of the environmental crisis.

Converting rainforest to plantation impacts food webs and biodiversity

Science Daily - 22/02/2024
Every day, new areas of rainforests are converted into plantations, drastically changing tropical biodiversity and the way the ecosystem functions. Yet, the current understanding of the consequences is fragmentary: previous studies tended to examine either biodiversity or the ecosystem. An international research team brings these threads together in this study. They analyzed organisms ranging from microscopic mites and earthworms in the soil, to beetles and birds in tree canopies, comparing tropical rainforest with rubber and oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia.

An awkward family reunion: Sea monsters are our cousins

Science Daily - 22/02/2024
The sea lamprey, a 500-million-year-old animal with a sharp-toothed suction cup for a mouth, is the thing of nightmares. A new study discovered that the hindbrain -- the part of the brain controlling vital functions like blood pressure and heart rate -- of both sea lampreys and humans is built using an extraordinarily similar molecular and genetic toolkit.

Highways through historically redlined areas likely cause air pollution disparities today

Science Daily - 22/02/2024
As part of the New Deal, several governmental programs were created to expand homeownership through mortgages and loans. However, neighborhoods with primarily Black or immigrant communities often were rated 'hazardous' for repayment under the discriminatory, 'redlining' practice that restricted lending. Today, those same areas are exposed to more air pollution than other urban neighborhoods, and the cause could relate to nearby highways or industrial parks.

Mercury levels in tuna remain nearly unchanged since 1971

Science Daily - 22/02/2024
Tuna is one of the most popular seafoods worldwide. But this protein-rich fish can build up high levels of methylmercury from feeding on contaminated prey, like smaller fish or crustaceans. Despite efforts to reduce mercury emissions into the environment, researchers report that levels in tuna appear to be unchanged since 1971. They warn that more aggressive emission reduction targets are needed to start nudging down tuna mercury levels.

Compounds in female ginseng could lead to new osteoporosis treatments

Science Daily - 22/02/2024
With ever-increasing life expectancy comes the challenge of treating age-related disorders such as osteoporosis. Although there are effective drugs for treating this metabolic bone disease, they can be expensive and have side effects, limiting their availability to some people. In the search for alternative drug candidates, researchers have discovered and fully replicated a compound from a botanical source, female ginseng, that had potent anti-osteoporotic activity in cellular tests.

New water batteries stay cool under pressure

Science Daily - 22/02/2024
A global team of researchers has invented recyclable 'water batteries' that won't catch fire or explode. The team use water to replace organic electrolytes -- which enable the flow of electric current between the positive and negative terminals -- meaning their batteries can't start a fire or blow up -- unlike their lithium-ion counterparts.

Kiss-and-tell: A new method for precision delivery of nanoparticles and small molecules to individual cells

Science Daily - 22/02/2024
The delivery of experimental materials to individual cells with exactness and exclusivity has long been an elusive and much sought-after ability in biology. With it comes the promise of deciphering many longstanding secrets of the cell. A research team has now successfully shown how small molecules and single nanoparticles can be applied directly onto the surface of cells. In the study the scientists describe their technique as a ' kiss' (microkiss) -- an easy and cost-effective new method, unlocking new possibilities in single-cell science with a view towards next generation therapeutic applications.

An environmentally friendly way to turn seafood waste into value-added products

Science Daily - 22/02/2024
Reduce, reuse, recycle, and repurpose: These are all ways we can live more sustainably. One tricky aspect of recycling, though, is that sometimes the recycling process is chemically intensive, and this is the case for recycling one of the world's most abundant materials -- chitin. Researchers have tackled this problem and found a way to sustainably recover chitin from seafood waste.

Toxic elements found in stranded whales, dolphins over 15 years

Science Daily - 22/02/2024
Researchers evaluated the prevalence, concentration and tissue distribution of essential and non-essential trace elements, including heavy metal toxicants in tissue (blubber, kidney, liver, skeletal muscle, skin) and fecal samples collected from 90 whales and dolphins stranded in Georgia and Florida from 2007 to 2021.

Links between human, canine brain tumors

Science Daily - 22/02/2024
Researchers have discovered that meningiomas -- the most common type of brain tumor in humans and dogs -- are extremely similar genetically.

Revolutionary breakthrough in solar energy: Most efficient QD solar cells

Science Daily - 22/02/2024
A research team has unveiled a novel ligand exchange technique that enables the synthesis of organic cation-based perovskite quantum dots (PQDs), ensuring exceptional stability while suppressing internal defects in the photoactive layer of solar cells.

Automated method helps researchers quantify uncertainty in their predictions

Science Daily - 22/02/2024
A new technique can help researchers who use Bayesian inference achieve more accurate results more quickly, without a lot of additional work.

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