Science and Technology

Study: Drivers with shift work sleep disorder 3x more likely to be in crash

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
People who work nontraditional work hours, such as 11 p.m.-7 a.m., or the 'graveyard' shift, are more likely than people with traditional daytime work schedules to develop a chronic medical condition -- shift work sleep disorder -- that disrupts their sleep. According to researchers, people who develop this condition are also three times more likely to be involved in a vehicle accident.

Tiny cloud of atoms can be turned from a heat engine into a cooler

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
The demonstration that a tiny cloud of atoms can be turned from a heat engine into a cooler by cranking up the interactions between the particles provides both deep fundamental insight and a possible template for more efficient thermoelectric devices.

Evolutionary biologists discover mechanism that enables lizards to breathe underwater

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
A team of evolutionary biologists has shown that Anolis lizards, or anoles, are able to breathe underwater with the aid of a bubble clinging to their snouts. Some anoles are stream specialists, and these semi-aquatic species frequently dive underwater to avoid predators, where they can remain submerged for as long as 18 minutes. The researchers termed the process 'rebreathing' after the scuba-diving technology.

High genomic diversity is good news for California condor

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
The wild California condor population dropped to 22 before rescue and captive breeding allowed reintroduction into the wild. A new assembly of the complete genome of the bird reveals some inbreeding as a result, but overall high genomic diversity attesting to large populations of condors in the past, likely in the tens of thousands. Comparison to Andean condor and turkey vulture genomes reveals declines in their populations also, and lower genomic diversity than California condor.

Hydrogen peroxide-producing drug boosts cancer-killing effect of radiotherapy

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
A small drug molecule that appears to protect normal tissue from the damaging effects of radiation, may simultaneously be able to boost the cancer-killing effect of radiation therapy, according to a new study.

Antarctic ice sheet retreat could trigger chain reaction

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
The Antarctic ice sheet was even more unstable in the past than previously thought, and at times possibly came close to collapse, new research suggests.

Urban traffic noise causes song learning deficits in birds

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Traffic noise leads to inaccuracies and delays in the development of song learning in young birds. They also suffer from a suppressed immune system, which is an indicator of chronic stress. A new study shows that young zebra finches, just like children, are particularly vulnerable to the effects of noise because of its potential to interfere with learning at a critical developmental stage.

How widespread is lemur and fossa meat consumption?

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
A new study looks at the prevalence of human consumption of lemur and fossa (Madagascar's largest predator) in villages within and around Makira Natural Park, northeastern Madagascar, providing up-to-date estimates of the percentage of households who eat meat from these protected species.

New evidence for electron's dual nature found in a quantum spin liquid

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
New experiments provide evidence for a decades-old theory that, in the quantum regime, an electron behaves as if it is made of two particles: one particle that carries its negative charge and the other that gives it a magnet-like property called spin. The team detected evidence for this theory in materials called quantum spin liquids.

Ticking upward: Researcher studies rise of tick-borne diseases in Midwest

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
When a researcher heard from a former colleague at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that a 7-year-old girl had died from Rocky Mountain spotted fever as the result of a tick bite, he thought of his own daughter, also 7 years old at the time, and the potentially fatal danger posed to vulnerable populations by tick-borne diseases.

Researchers 3D print complex micro-optics with improved imaging performance

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Researchers detail how they used a type of 3D printing known as two-photon lithography to create lenses that combine refractive and diffractive surfaces.

Species losses on isolated Panamanian island show importance of habitat connectivity

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Free from human disturbance for a century, an inland island in Central America has nevertheless lost more than 25% of its native bird species since its creation as part of the Panama Canal's construction, and scientists say the losses continue.

COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are immunogenic in pregnant and lactating women, study finds

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
In a new study, researchers evaluated the immunogenicity of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines in pregnant and lactating women who received either the Pfizer or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines, finding that both triggered immune responses.

Hidden processes at work in the hearts of large stars revealed

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Astronomers commonly refer to massive stars as the chemical factories of the Universe. They generally end their lives in spectacular supernovae, events that forge many of the elements on the periodic table. How elemental nuclei mix within these enormous stars has a major impact on our understanding of their evolution prior to their explosion. It also represents the largest uncertainty for scientists studying their structure and evolution.

Ankle and foot bone evolution gave prehistoric mammals a leg up

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
The evolution of ankle and foot bones into different shapes and sizes helped mammals adapt and thrive after the extinction of the dinosaurs, a study suggests.

Eating more fruit and vegetables linked to less stress, study finds

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Eating a diet rich in fruit and vegetables is associated with less stress, according to new research. The findings revealed people who ate at least 470 grams of fruit and vegetables daily had 10 per cent lower stress levels than those who consumed less than 230 grams.

Ion-selective smart porous membranes

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Researchers have developed an ion-selective smart porous membrane that can respond to outer stimuli, potentially paving the way for new applications in molecular separation and sensing applications.

Can fisheries benefit from biodiversity and conserve it, too?

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
A new study reveals the trade-offs of fish biodiversity -- its costs and benefits to mixed-stock fisheries -- and points to a potential way to harness the benefits while avoiding costs to fishery performance.

Quantum machine learning hits a limit

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
A black hole permanently scrambles information that can't be recovered with any quantum machine learning algorithm, shedding new light on the classic Hayden-Preskill thought experiment.

New study reveals where memories of familiar places are stored in the brain

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
As we move through the world, what we see is seamlessly integrated with our memory of the broader spatial environment. How does the brain accomplish this feat? A new study reveals that three regions of the brain in the posterior cerebral cortex, which the researchers call 'place-memory areas,' form a link between the brain's perceptual and memory systems.

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