Science and Technology

Non-native fish are main consumers of salmon in reservoirs

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
When warmwater fish species like bass, walleye and crappie that are not native to the Pacific Northwest, but prized by some anglers, overlap with baby spring chinook salmon in reservoirs in Oregon's Willamette River they consume more baby salmon than native fish per individual, new research found.

Switching on a superfluid

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
We can learn a lot by studying microscopic and macroscopic changes in a material as it crosses from one phase to another, for example from ice to water to steam. A new study examines systems transitioning from 'normal' fluid to a quantum state known as a superfluid, which can flow with zero friction, with a view to future, superfluid-based, quantum technologies, such as ultra-low energy electronics.

Are too many Phase III cancer clinical trials set up to fail?

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
New research finds four out of five cancer therapies tested in Phase III trials do not achieve clinically-meaningful benefit in prolonging survival, and is the first study to quantify the number of false-positive, false-negative, and true-negative trial results.

Insulin resistance doubles risk of major depressive disorder

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
Scientists have linked insulin resistance to an increased risk of developing major depressive disorder.

Artificial intelligence may be set to reveal climate-change tipping points

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
Researchers are developing artificial intelligence that could assess climate change tipping points. The deep learning algorithm could act as an early warning system against runaway climate change.

Different types of cancers are likely to spread to specific areas of the brain

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
Brain metastasis occurs when cancer in one part of the body spreads to the brain. The lifetime incidence of such metastatic brain tumors in cancer patients is between 20%-45%, research shows.

Over 120 scientific experts’ global ocean report shows unprecedented climate change impact, as Arctic registers record low ice levels

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
Arctic ice levels logged in the last two years have reached record lows, whilst per decade have -- on average since 1979 to 2020 -- dropped by nearly 13%, a new vast report on the ocean worldwide shows.

Sex and the symbiont: Can algae hookups help corals survive?

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
Scientists have discovered that symbiotic single-celled algae that live inside of and feed corals can reproduce not only by mitosis, but also sexually. Encouraging sex in these algae can accelerate their evolution to produce strains better able to help reefs cope with climate change.

New avenue for study of diseases like multiple sclerosis

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
A surprising discovery may offer a promising new direction in the study of multiple sclerosis and other diseases of hypomyelination -- when axons of neurons are not covered sufficiently in fatty sheaths (myelin), which disrupts communication between nerve cells.

How a city’s design creates congestion

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
City planners predict that as more people move into urban areas, traffic jams will get worse. That's why sustainability experts propose a new way to analyze traffic congestion. Using more precise measures to describe the shape of cities and considering other socioeconomic factors, the model, which was applied to nearly 100 American cities, could lead to a better understanding of the link between congestion and land use.

How do migraines affect the sleep cycle?

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
Adults and children with migraines may get less quality, REM sleep time than people who don't have migraines. That's according to a meta-analysis. Children with migraines were also found to get less total sleep time than their healthy peers but took less time to fall asleep.

Adults with neurologic conditions more likely to have experienced childhood trauma

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
Adults with neurologic conditions are more likely than the general population to have had adverse childhood experiences such as abuse, neglect or household dysfunction, according to a new study. The study does not prove that neurologic conditions are caused by such experiences. It only shows an association between the two.

Metals supercharge promising method to bury harmful carbon dioxide under the sea

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
Researchers have found a way to supercharge the formation of carbon dioxide-based crystal structures that could someday store billions of tons of carbon under the ocean floor for centuries, if not forever.

Desert teamwork explains global pattern of co-operation in birds

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
A new study from the Kalahari Desert finds that teamwork allows birds to cope with brutally unpredictable environments.

Those earrings are so last year – but the reason you're wearing them is ancient

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
Shell beads found in a cave in Morocco are at least 142,000 years old. The archaeologists who found them say they're the earliest known evidence of a widespread form of human communication.

Researchers provide a framework to study precision nutrigeroscience

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
There are many forms of dietary restriction and their health benefits are not 'one size fits all.' Researchers provide a framework for a new personalized sub-specialty: precision nutrigeroscience, based on biomarkers affected by genetics, gender, tissue, and age.

Wind energy can deliver vital slash to global warming

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
Implementing advance wind energy scenarios could achieve a reduction in global warming atmospheric average temperatures of 0.3 to 0.8 degrees Celsius by the end of the century, according to new research.

Early Homo sapiens groups in Europe faced subarctic climates

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
Using oxygen stable isotope analysis of tooth enamel from animals butchered by humans at the site of Bacho Kiro Cave, Bulgaria, researchers show that human groups belonging to an early wave of dispersal of our species into Europe were faced with very cold climatic conditions while they occupied the cave between about 46,000 and 43,000 years ago. Archaeological remains at Bacho Kiro Cave currently represent the oldest known remnants of Upper Palaeolithic Homo sapiens in Europe, and thus open a unique window into the time when our species started to move out of the Levant and establish itself across the mid latitudes of Eurasia as part of an archaeological phenomenon called the Initial Upper Palaeolithic.

Researchers mimic how water and wind create complex shapes in nature

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
Researchers have found a way to mimic the natural processes that create complex shapes and landscapes with the help of a vibrating plate and resulting energy fields.

Continental growth is not a continuous process

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
The continents, a specific feature of our planet, still hold many secrets. Using chemical data on sedimentary rocks compiled from the scientific literature from the 1980s to the present day, researchers have uncovered a new geological history of the continents. The research shows that their growth was not a continuous process, and that they have always been rich in silica1. This new study calls into question certain models of the onset of plate tectonics and provides us with a better understanding of continental growth through time.

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