Science and Technology

Researchers leverage shadows to model 3D scenes, including objects blocked from view

Science Daily - 19/06/2024
A new technique can model an entire 3D scene, including areas hidden from view, from just one camera image. The method relies on image shadows, which provide information about the geometry and location of hidden objects.

New 3D technique reveals precancerous pancreatic lesions

Science Daily - 19/06/2024
Researchers have developed a 3D genomic profiling technique to identify small precancerous lesions in the pancreas -- called pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs) -- that lead to one of the most aggressive, deadly pancreatic cancers.

Researchers find disparities in outcomes of hospice discharges

Science Daily - 19/06/2024
Black patients who leave hospice care and patients with short stays in hospice care are at increased risks for being admitted to a hospital after being discharged from hospice, according to researchers.

What happens when neutron stars collide?

Science Daily - 19/06/2024
New simulations show that hot neutrinos created at the interface of merging binary neutron stars are briefy trapped and remain out of equilibrium with the cold cores of the stars for 2 to 3 milliseconds.

Discovery of 'new rules of the immune system' could improve treatment of inflammatory diseases, say scientists

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
A single large population of healer cells, called regulatory T cells, is whizzing around our body -- not multiple specialist populations restricted to specific parts of the body as previously thought. These cells shut down inflammation and repair the collateral damage to cells caused after our immune system has responded to injury or illness. Tests, in mice, of a drug developed by the researchers showed that regulatory T cells can be attracted to specific body parts, boosted in number, and activated to suppress immune response and rebuild tissue. Current anti-inflammatory drugs used for this purpose suppress the body's whole immune system, making patients more vulnerable to infection. The discovery could lead to more targeted treatments, with fewer side-effects, for issues from lengthy COVID infections to autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis. Clinical trials in humans are now planned.

Odors are encoded in rings in the brain of migratory locusts

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
Researchers describe how odors are encoded in the antennal lobe, the olfactory center in the brain of migratory locusts. Using transgenic locusts and imaging techniques, the researchers were able to show a ring-shaped representation of odors in the brain. The pattern of olfactory coding in the antennal lobe is the same at all stages of locust development. A better understanding of olfactory coding in the locust brain should help to learn more about how the behavior of these insects is controlled, especially their swarming.

The declining diet of Japan's youth

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
Researchers performed a study to quantify highly processed food consumption and to investigate its association with diet quality among Japanese children and adolescents. Highly processed foods (HPFs) accounted for over one-fourth of the total energy intake amongst youths. Consumption was negatively associated with the intake of healthy foods, such as fruits, vegetables and pulses, and positively associated with the consumption of confectioneries.

How targeted nutrients can fight cancer

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
An international research team has discovered a new way to effectively treat cancer, by using nutrients to reactivate suppressed metabolic pathways in cancer cells.

Fishy parenting? Punishing offspring encourages cooperation

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
Scientists discovered that Neolamprologus savoryi fish use punishment to encourage offspring to cooperate in brood care, revealing advanced cognitive abilities previously thought unique to higher vertebrates. This study highlights that punishment for promoting cooperation exists beyond human societies, prompting a reevaluation of animal intelligence.

Rethinking English essay scores: The argument for argument over grammar

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
To get high scores at essay writing tests, learners of English as a foreign language need to focus on good arguments more than on complex grammar. The finding challenges conventional approaches to test preparation and scoring rubrics.

Tight-knit communities can prevent environmental progress

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
New research indicates that strong community bonds could hinder rather than help environmental initiatives.

Researchers uncover mechanism that fuels growth of aggressive B-cell lymphoma

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
Researchers have discovered a molecular mechanism whose genetic disruption boosts the growth of the most common type of lymphoma.

Cancer survivors are at increased risk of disease throughout life

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
Researchers have surveyed people under the age of 25 who have had cancer since 1958. The study shows that cancer survivors are at greater risk for cardiovascular diseases, other cancers and other diagnoses later in life. In addition, the researchers saw that socioeconomic factors played a role in survival.

The world's oldest wine discovered

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
A white wine over 2,000 years old, of Andalusian origin, is the oldest wine ever discovered.

Natural hazards threaten over three thousand species

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
Natural hazards can speed up the extinction process of land animals that have limited distribution and/or small populations. But there is hope to turn the negative development around, says researchers behind new study.

Restored rat-free islands could support hundreds of thousands more breeding seabirds

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
Archipelago case-study shows that removing invasive rats and restoring native vegetation could help bring back hundreds of thousands of breeding pairs of seabirds lost to tropical islands. Calculating that there are enough fish to sustain restored seabird populations should be an important consideration for restoration projects, scientists say. Restored seabird populations also provide huge boost to the health of surrounding coral reef ecosystems through restored nutrient cycles.

Blood markers detect rare forms of dementia as well as the neurological diseases ALS and PSP

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
In a study with 991 adults, scientists show that the most common forms of frontotemporal dementia as well as the neurological diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and progressive supranuclear palsy can be recognized by blood testing.

Unveiling Telo-seq: A breakthrough in telomere research on aging and cancer

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
Telo-seq -- a new tool -- is bringing telomere science into its modern era. Scientists can finally explore questions about the role of telomeres in aging and cancer that were not accessible with previous methods. The findings will inspire novel telomere-targeting therapeutics for aging-related diseases.

The 'Queen of the Night' does not whistle

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
Opera singers have to use the extreme limits of their voice range. Many pedagogical and scientific sources suggest that the highest pitches reached in classical singing can only be produced with a so-called 'whistle' voice register, in analogy to ultrasonic vocalizations of mice and rats. An international research team has now rejected this assumption. In their study, the scientists showed that the high-frequency sounds of operatic sopranos are produced with the same principle than speech and most other forms of singing.

Large wildfires create weather that favors more fire

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
A new study shows soot from large wildfires in California traps sunlight, making days warmer and drier than they ought to be.

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