Science and Technology

'Thrifty' low-energy budgets of primary cancer tumors quantified

Science Daily - 07/02/2023
In five different types of cancers, researchers found that tumors were successful at proliferating on low-energy budgets in part because they neglect normal tissue functions that healthy organs carry out for the benefit of the body as a whole. The discovery has vast implications for anti-cancer strategies because it directs our attention to slow energy metabolism.

How the 'construction site' of long term memory gets built in the brain

Science Daily - 07/02/2023
The proteins responsible for forming memories in neurons change depending on experience, a hint at how our brains build memory.

Brain 'zips and unzips' information to perform skilled tasks

Science Daily - 06/02/2023
The human brain prepares skilled movements such as playing the piano, competing in athletics, or dancing by 'zipping and unzipping' information about the timing and order of movements ahead of the action being performed, a new study reveals.

Wild bumblebee queens lured and killed in commercial hives

Science Daily - 06/02/2023
While testing how well commercial bumblebees pollinate early spring crops, researchers made a surprising discovery: dead wild bumblebee queens in the hives, an average of 10 per nest box.

How waste-eating bacteria digest complex carbons

Science Daily - 06/02/2023
For the first time, researchers mapped the metabolic mechanisms in a Comamonas bacterium that digests chemicals from plastic and plant waste. This new information could potentially lead to novel biotechnology platforms that harness the bacteria to help recycle plastic waste.

Following healthy lifestyle may reduce risk of long COVID

Science Daily - 06/02/2023
Women who followed most aspects of a healthy lifestyle, including healthy body weight, not smoking, regular exercise, adequate sleep, high quality diet, and moderate alcohol consumption, had about half the risk of long COVID compared with women without any healthy lifestyle factors, according to a new study.

More frequent atmospheric rivers hinder seasonal recovery of Arctic sea ice

Science Daily - 06/02/2023
The Arctic is rapidly losing sea ice, even during winter months when temperatures are below freezing and ice should be recovering from the summer melt. A new study found powerful storms called atmospheric rivers are increasingly reaching the Arctic in winter, slowing sea ice recovery and accounting for a third of all winter sea ice decline, according to a team led by Penn State scientists.

A star is born: Study reveals complex chemistry inside 'stellar nurseries'

Science Daily - 06/02/2023
The universe's carbon atoms complete a journey that spans eons -- forming in the hearts of dying stars, then becoming a part of planets and even living organisms. Now, a team has uncovered the chemistry behind one tiny, but critical, step in this process.

Scientists detect molten rock layer hidden under Earth's tectonic plates

Science Daily - 06/02/2023
Scientists have discovered a new layer of partly molten rock under the Earth's crust that might help settle a long-standing debate about how tectonic plates move. The molten layer is located about 100 miles from the surface and is part of the asthenosphere, which is important for plate tectonics because it forms a relatively soft boundary that lets tectonic plates move through the mantle. The researchers found, however that the melt does not appear to notably influence the flow of mantle rocks. Instead, they say, the discovery confirms that the convection of heat and rock in the mantle are the prevailing influence on the motion of the plates.

Why microbes in the deep ocean live without sunlight

Science Daily - 06/02/2023
A new study reverses the idea that the bulk of life in the ocean is fueled by photosynthesis via sunshine, revealing that many ocean microbes in fact get their energy from hydrogen and carbon monoxide. It has always been a mystery as to how microbes growing in deepest parts of the sea survive, with no sunlight. A new study shows that a distinct process called chemosynthesis -- growth using inorganic compounds -- fuels microbes in these darkest depths.

How a high fat diet allows expulsion of intestinal parasite worms

Science Daily - 06/02/2023
Scientists have discovered that a high-fat diet allows the immune system to eliminate a parasitic worm which is a major cause of death and illness in the developing world. Parasitic worms affect up to a billion people, particularly in developing nations with poor sanitation. One of these parasites known as 'whipworm' can cause long lasting infections in the large intestine. Researchers have discovered that a high-fat diet allows the immune system to eliminate the parasite.

A chat may help convert a peer to a pro-sustainability stance

Science Daily - 06/02/2023
Changing the mind of someone who is dismissive of efforts to protect the planet could be accomplished by sharing a pro-sustainability point of view during a conversation, new research suggests.

Shark bites tied for 10-year low in 2022 but spiked in regional hotspots

Science Daily - 06/02/2023
The number of unprovoked shark attacks worldwide decreased last year, tying with 2020 for the fewest number of reported incidents in the last 10 years. There were a total of 57 unprovoked bites in 2022, most of which occurred in the United States and Australia. Of these, five attacks were fatal, down from nine deaths in 2021 and 10 the year prior.

Pacific Northwest heat dome tree damage more about temperature than drought, scientists say

Science Daily - 06/02/2023
Widespread tree scorch in the Pacific Northwest that became visible shortly after multiple days of record-setting, triple-digit temperatures in June 2021 was more attributable to heat than to drought conditions, researchers say.

Dirty laundry: How much microfiber do we emit with our washing?

Science Daily - 06/02/2023
The UK's laundry releases microfibers weighing the equivalent of up to 1,500 double-decker buses in microfibers every year, according to new research.

Star formation in distant galaxies by the James Webb Space Telescope

Science Daily - 06/02/2023
Thanks to the James Webb Space Telescope's first images of galaxy clusters, researchers have, for the very first time, been able to examine very compact structures of star clusters inside galaxies, so-called clumps.

Prehistoric human migration in Southeast Asia driven by sea-level rise

Science Daily - 06/02/2023
An interdisciplinary team of scientistshas found that rapid sea-level rise drove early settlers in Southeast Asia to migrate during the prehistoric period, increasing the genetic diversity of the region today.

Interactive cyber-physical human: Generating contact-rich whole-body motions

Science Daily - 06/02/2023
Performing human-like motions that involve multiple contacts is challenging for robots. In this regard, a researcher has envisioned an interactive cyber-physical human (iCPH) platform with complementary humanoid (physical twin) and simulation (digital twin) elements. iCPH combines human measurement data, musculoskeletal analysis, and machine learning for data collection and augmentation. As a result, iCPH can understand, predict, and synthesize whole-body contact motions.

'Engine' of luminous merging galaxies pinpointed for the first time

Science Daily - 06/02/2023
Roughly 500 million light-years away, near the constellation Delphinus, two galaxies are colliding. Known as merging galaxy IIZw096, the luminous phenomenon is obscured by cosmic dust, but researchers first identified a bright, energetic source of light 12 years ago. Now, with a more advanced telescope, the team has pinpointed the precise location of what they have dubbed the 'engine' of the merging galaxy.

A sweet reaction: Microwaves might increase the sustainability of the chemicals industry

Science Daily - 06/02/2023
Researchers have expanded the synthetic toolkit for preparing valuable chemical precursors from renewable feedstocks. They used microwave irradiation to dramatically improve the selectivity of the formose reaction, forming a simple six- and seven-carbon mixture that can be readily purified. These findings will help the chemicals industry minimize the use of fossil resources and improve the sustainability of manufacturing processes.

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