Science and Technology

Obesity slows progress against cancer deaths, study suggests

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
A new study suggests that heart disease and obesity-associated cancer mortality rates have continued to improve, but at a slowing pace.

Novel nanotech improves cystic fibrosis antibiotic by 100,000-fold, research shows

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
New nanotechnology could change the lives of thousands of people living with cystic fibrosis (CF) as groundbreaking research shows it can improve the effectiveness of the CF antibiotic Tobramycin, increasing its efficacy by up to 100,000-fold.

Scientists show how to attack the 'fortress' surrounding pancreatic cancer tumors

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Tackling the scar tissue that shields pancreatic tumors from effective drug access is a promising advance in a notoriously hard-to-treat cancer.

Obesity during adolescence linked to increased risk of stroke as an adult, study finds

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Higher body mass index (BMI) -- an indicator of obesity -- in late adolescence is associated with a significantly higher risk of first ischemic stroke in men and women under age 50, regardless of whether they had Type 2 diabetes, a new study finds. Even BMIs in the high-normal range are associated with increased stroke risk in both men and women.

Largest-ever study of artificial insemination in sharks -- and the occasional 'virgin birth'

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Scientists help protect sharks by developing aquarium breeding programs that pair up individuals in ways that increase genetic diversity. In a new study, scientists undertook the largest-ever effort to artificially inseminate sharks. Their work resulted in 97 new baby sharks, including ones whose parents live on opposite sides of the country and a few that don't have fathers at all.

Dental procedures during pandemic are no riskier than a drink of water, study finds

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
A new study's findings dispel the misconception that patients and providers are at high risk of catching COVID-19 at the dentist's office.

Count your blessings: Short gratitude intervention can increase academic motivation

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
In a recent study, researchers explore how nurturing feelings of gratitude can enhance motivation among college students. Their results show that a keeping a daily gratitude journal for only two weeks has a positive impact on academic motivations that can last months.

Orangutan finding highlights need to protect habitat

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Wild orangutans are known for their ability to survive food shortages, but scientists have made a surprising finding that highlights the need to protect the habitat of these critically endangered primates, which face rapid habitat destruction and threats linked to climate change.

Congestion pricing could shrink car size

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Rush hour will likely return when pandemic lockdowns lift, but a new study suggests that congestion pricing -- policies that charge tolls for driving during peak hours -- could not only cure traffic jams but also convince motorists it is safe to buy smaller, more efficient cars.

Mind over matter: brain chip allows paralysed man to write

The Hindu:Science - 13/05/2021
Sensors transmitted brain signals to a computer for translation by an artificial intelligence algorithm into typed text

Know the scientist: Annie Jump Cannon

The Hindu:Science - 13/05/2021
Cannon classified over 350,000 and discovered some 300 variable stars and 5 novae

Delaying second COVID vaccine dose may prevent deaths under certain conditions

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Delaying the second dose of covid-19 vaccines, at least for people aged under 65, could result in up to 20 percent lower mortality, but only under certain conditions, a new study finds.

Academic skills least valued when assessing the 'ideal student' by academics and peers

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
The 'ideal student' - valued by both learners and university staff - is a punctual, organized, hard worker and enthusiastic learner - rather than someone with excellent academic results, high intelligence and good employability.

How AIs ask for personal information is important for gaining user trust

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Researchers report that users responded differently when AIs either offered to help the user, or asked for help from the user. This response influenced whether the user trusted the AI with their personal information. They added that these introductions from the AI could be designed in a way to both increase users' trust, as well as raise their awareness about the importance of personal information.

Measuring brain blood flow and activity with light

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
A new, noninvasive method for measuring brain blood flow with light has been developed by biomedical engineers and neurologists and used to detect brain activation. The new method, functional interferometric diffusing wave spectroscopy, or fiDWS, promises to be cheaper than existing technology and could be used for assessing brain injuries, or in neuroscience research.

New research may explain shortages in STEM careers

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
A new study revealed that more college students change majors within the STEM pipeline than leave the career path of science, technology, engineering and mathematics altogether.

Scientists decode the 'language' of immune cells

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Scientists have identified 'words' immune cells use to call up immune defense genes -- an important step toward understanding their language. The scientists also discovered that in an autoimmune disease, Sjögren's syndrome, two of these words are used incorrectly, activating the wrong genes and triggering the disease.

Standing dead trees in 'ghost forests' contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, study finds

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
While standing dead trees in ghost forests did not release as much greenhouse gas emissions as the soils, they did increase GHG emissions of the overall ecosystem by about 25 percent, a new study has found.

A delicate balance: Learning new ways that gut microbes educate the immune system

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
An immune system that mistakes our good gut bacteria for an enemy can cause a dangerous type of inflammation in the intestines called colitis. An immune system that looks the other way while gut microbes spill past their assigned borders is equally dangerous. Understanding how the immune system learns to make a brokered peace with its microbial residents, called the microbiota, is therefore an important area of research.

How the body builds a healthy relationship with 'good' gut bacteria

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Research reveals insights into how the body maintains balance with 'good' gut bacteria that allows these microbes to flourish in the intestine but keeps them out of tissues and organs where they're not supposed to be.

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