Science and Technology

At-camera gaze can increase scores in simulated interviews

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
Eye-contact has a significant impact on interpersonal evaluation, and online job interviews are no exception. In addition to the quality of a resume, the direction of the interviewee's gaze might help (or hinder) their chances of securing the job.

Rapid test of cerebrospinal fluid decreases time to diagnosis for brain tumors

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
A test that looks for genetic hallmarks of brain cancers in samples of cerebrospinal fluid can decrease the time to diagnosis and eliminate the need for invasive brain biopsies for some patients. Experts in neurosurgery, cancer and pathology worked together to develop a rapid, genotyping test that can detect key mutations associated with brain cancers from samples taken during a lumbar puncture.

‘Universal’ equation predicts how often bird, bat, insect wings beat

The Hindu:Science - 18/06/2024
Using the rules of physics, scientists have found a universal law telling us why flying birds and insects fly the way they do

How diapers use quantum physics to attend to nature’s call | Explained

The Hindu:Science - 18/06/2024
Whether something absorbs or repels water has to do with microscopic forces and the nature of a material

Origins of cumulative culture in human evolution

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
Cumulative culture -- the accumulation of technological modifications and improvements over generations -- allowed humans to adapt to a diversity of environments and challenges. But, it is unclear when cumulative culture first developed during hominin evolution. A new study concludes that humans began to rapidly accumulate technological knowledge through social learning around 600,000 years ago.

New technology allows researchers to precisely, flexibly modulate brain

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
Researchers have developed a noninvasive technology combining a holographic acoustic device with genetic engineering that allows them to precisely target affected neurons in the brain, creating the potential to precisely modulate selected cell types in multiple diseased brain regions.

Effective hurricane risk messaging

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
Forecasters can use images in social media to better communicate weather related hazards of hurricanes, according to a pair of new studies.

How the ketogenic diet improves healthspan and memory in aging mice

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
The ketogenic diet has its fanatics and detractors among dieters, but either way, the diet has a scientifically documented impact on memory in mice. While uncovering how the high fat, low carbohydrate diet boosts memory in older mice, scientists identified a new molecular signaling pathway that improves synapse function and helps explain the diet's benefit on brain health and aging.

Maternal inheritance of Alzheimer's disease tied to increased risk of developing disease

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
Researchers analyzed 4,400 cognitively unimpaired adults with amyloid imaging, finding increased amyloid in those who reported that their mothers had symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increased amyloid, a biomarker of AD, was also found in those with a history of the disease on both sides of their family and in those whose fathers had an early onset of symptoms. The study suggests that a person's maternal versus paternal family history could have a different impact on risk of accumulating amyloid in the brain.

Bedtime battles: 1 in 4 parents say their child can't go to sleep because they're worried or anxious

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
One in four parents describe getting their young child to bed as difficult -- and these parents are less likely to have a bedtime routine, more likely to leave on a video or TV show, and more likely to stay with their child until they're asleep.

Towards wider 5G network coverage: Novel wirelessly powered relay transceiver

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
A novel 256-element wirelessly powered transceiver array for non-line-of-sight 5G communication, featuring efficient wireless power transmission and high-power conversion efficiency, has been designed. The innovative design can enhance the 5G network coverage even to places with link blockage, improving flexibility and coverage area, and potentially making high-speed, low-latency communication more accessible.

Researchers teach AI to spot what you're sketching

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
A new way to teach artificial intelligence (AI) to understand human line drawings -- even from non-artists -- has been developed.

Wirelessly powered relay will help bring 5G technology to smart factories

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
A recently developed wirelessly powered 5G relay could accelerate the development of smart factories, report scientists. By adopting a lower operating frequency for wireless power transfer, the proposed relay design solves many of the current limitations, including range and efficiency. In turn, this allows for a more versatile and widespread arrangement of sensors and transceivers in industrial settings.

Simplicity versus adaptability: Understanding the balance between habitual and goal-directed behaviors

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
Scientists have proposed a new AI method in which systems of habitual and goal-directed behaviors learn to help each other. Through computer simulations that mimicked the exploration of a maze, the method quickly adapts to changing environments and also reproduced the behavior of humans and animals after they had been accustomed to a certain environment for a long time. The study not only paves the way for the development of systems that adapt quickly and reliably in the burgeoning field of AI, but also provides clues to how we make decisions in the fields of neuroscience and psychology.

New material puts eco-friendly methanol conversion within reach

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
Researchers have developed innovative, eco-friendly quantum materials that can drive the transformation of methanol into ethylene glycol. This discovery opens up new possibilities for using eco-friendly materials in photocatalysis, paving the way for sustainable chemical production.

Treating the gut-brain connection with B vitamins to treat Parkinson's Disease

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
A study has revealed a link between gut microbiota and Parkinson's disease. The researchers discovered a decrease in bacterial genes related to the synthesis of vitamins B2 and B7. The lack of these genes was associated with reduced intestinal short-chain fatty acids and polyamines, agents that maintain the intestinal barrier and prevent the leakage of toxins into the blood that can then access the brain. Using B vitamin therapy to address these deficiencies may restore the barrier and treat Parkinson's disease.

Nile perch invasion triggered genetic bottlenecks in Lake Victoria's endemic cichlids

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
Newfound evidence reveals that the upsurge of the exotic Nile perch in Lake Victoria had long-lasting effects on the genetic diversity of various local cichlid species, report scientists. Through large-scale comparative genomic analyses, the researchers found concrete proof in the collective genome of multiple species that this artificially introduced perch decimated many local fish populations, causing a 'bottleneck effect.'

Climate change: rising temperatures may impact groundwater quality

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
As the world's largest unfrozen freshwater resource, groundwater is crucial for life on Earth. Researchers have investigated how global warming is affecting groundwater temperatures and what that means for humanity and the environment. Their study indicates that by 2100, more than 75 million people are likely to be living in regions where the groundwater temperature exceeds the highest threshold set for drinking water by any country.

Understanding the Green Sahara's collapse

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
Abrupt shifts within complex systems such as the Earth's climate system are extremely hard to predict. Researchers have now succeeded in developing a new method to anticipate such tipping points in advance. They successfully tested the reliability of their method using one of the most severe abrupt climate changes of the past: the shift of the once-green Sahara into a desert.

MXenes for energy storage

Science Daily - 18/06/2024
A new method in spectromicroscopy significantly improves the study of chemical reactions at the nanoscale, both on surfaces and inside layered materials. Scanning X-ray microscopy (SXM) at MAXYMUS beamline of BESSY II enables the investigation of chemical species adsorbed on the top layer (surface) or intercalated within the MXene electrode (bulk) with high chemical sensitivity.

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