Science and Technology

Carbon fibers electrical measurements pave way for lightning strike protection technologies

Science Daily - 22/09/2021
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite structures are important in several industries, yet the electrical behavior of a composite is challenging to measure or predict because of the electrical conductivity of constituent carbon fibers and the composite's complex hierarchical microstructure. Researchers report a direct measurement of the transverse electrical resistivity of a single carbon fiber. The researchers combined a precise sample preparation with a technique called the van der Pauw method to accomplish this challenging measurement.

Researchers build embryo-like structures from human stem cells

Science Daily - 22/09/2021
Researchers construct an embryo-like structure from human stem cells, resulting in a new way to study the earliest stages of development.

Researchers use exosome-based strategy to block HIV in mice

Science Daily - 22/09/2021
Researchers used exosomes, tiny nanoparticles capable of being taken up by cells, to deliver novel protein into the cells of mice infected with HIV. The protein attached to HIVs' genetic material and prevented it from replicating, resulting in reduced levels of HIV in the bone marrow, spleen, and brain. The study paves the way for the development of novel delivery systems for suppressing HIV.

Researchers study recurrent neural network structure in the brain

Science Daily - 22/09/2021
A recurrent neural network structure exists in the most important part of the brain -- the frontal cortex -- and this network is less complex than has been thought and mostly unidirectional, new research shows.

Four dinosaurs discovered in Montana

Science Daily - 22/09/2021
A team of paleontologists excavated four dinosaurs in northeastern Montana this summer. The four dinosaur fossils are: the ilium -- or hip bones -- of an ostrich-sized theropod, the group of meat-eating, two-legged dinosaurs that includes Tyrannosaurus rex and raptors; the hips and legs of a duck-billed dinosaur; a pelvis, toe claw and limbs from another theropod that could be a rare ostrich-mimic Anzu, or possibly a new species; and a Triceratops specimen consisting of its skull and other fossilized bones.

Electrons on the edge: The story of an intrinsic magnetic topological insulator

Science Daily - 22/09/2021
An intrinsic magnetic topological insulator MnBi2Te4 has been discovered with a large band gap, making it a promising material platform for fabricating ultra-low-energy electronics and observing exotic quantum phenomena.

Is your child a fussy eater?

Science Daily - 22/09/2021
New research is providing a better understanding of what influences fussy eaters, and what is more likely to increase or decrease picky eating in children under 10.

Nasal drugs show promise for slowing Parkinson’s disease progression in lab study

Science Daily - 22/09/2021
Researchers have shown that two lab-developed and nasally-delivered peptides helped slow the spread of alpha-synuclein in mice. 'If these results can be replicated in patients, it would be a remarkable advance in the treatment of devastating neurological disorders,' says the lead author.

Engineering researchers develop new explanation for formation of vortices in 2D superfluid

Science Daily - 22/09/2021
Researchers have new insight about the formation of vortices in a type of quantum fluid, work that could help our comprehension of the physics mystery of how vortex clusters form and provide valuable understanding into the atmospheric swirling motion on planets such as Earth and Jupiter.

Roman-era mixers and millstones made with geology in mind

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
A study on stone tools from an outpost of the Roman Empire has found that for ancient bakers and millers, having the right tools was a matter of geology.

Our eyes and brain work together to create a ‘pipeline’ of meaning – new study

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
Humans read by 'pre-processing' written words to create a pipeline of meaning, according to new research.

Sticking to low-fat dairy may not be the only heart healthy option, study shows

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
New research amongst the world's biggest consumers of dairy foods has shown that those with higher intakes of dairy fat - measured by levels of fatty acids in the blood - had a lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared to those with low intakes. Higher intakes of dairy fat were not associated with an increased risk of death.

Records from Lake Magadi, Kenya, suggest environmental variability driven by changes in Earth’s orbit

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
Rift Valley lakes within eastern Africa range from freshwater to highly alkaline systems and are homes to diverse ecosystems. These Rift Valley lakes are also sedimentary repositories, yielding a high-resolution environmental record that can be targeted to better understand the environmental and climatic context of human evolution over the past few million years in eastern Africa.

Novel method of bioprinting neuron cells

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
Researchers have developed a new method of bioprinting adult neuron cells. They're using a new laser-assisted technology that maintains high levels of cell viability and functionality.

'Beach ball' representations calculated for US underground nuclear tests can aid monitoring

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
Researchers have calculated moment tensors for 130 underground nuclear and 10 chemical test explosions that took place at the Nevada National Security test site.

New guidelines to improve reporting standards of studies that investigate causal mechanisms

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
A new guideline has been developed to help scientists publish their research accurately and transparently. The AGReMA Statement (A Guideline for Reporting Mediation Analyses) provides recommendations for researchers who want to describe mediation analysis in their paper. Mediation analysis is primarily used to understand causation, ie how an intervention works or why it does not.

Darwin’s short-beak enigma solved

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
Biologists discovered that a mutation in the ROR2 gene is linked to beak size reduction in numerous breeds of domestic pigeons. Surprisingly, different mutations in ROR2 also underlie a human disorder called Robinow syndrome. The ROR2 signaling pathway plays an important role in the craniofacial development of all vertebrates.

Right program could turn immune cells into cancer killers

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
Cancer-fighting immune cells in patients with lung cancer whose tumors do not respond to immunotherapies appear to be running on a different 'program' that makes them less effective than immune cells in patients whose cancers respond to these immune treatments, suggests a new study.

Pioneering software can grow and treat virtual tumors using AI designed nanoparticles

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
The EVONANO platform allows scientists to grow virtual tumors and use artificial intelligence to automatically optimize the design of nanoparticles to treat them. The ability to grow and treat virtual tumors is an important step towards developing new therapies for cancer. Importantly, scientists can use virtual tumors to optimize design of nanoparticle-based drugs before they are tested in the laboratory or patients.

Mice’s learning skills help researchers pinpointing brain areas where acquired knowledge is stored

Science Daily - 21/09/2021
Is it a Rembrandt or a Vermeer? For lay people, it is often challenging to distinguish paintings by these two old masters. For the trained eye of an expert, on the other hand, it is not difficult at all. Scientists have now demonstrated that mice can also become experts in sorting images into categories. The study shows that part of the category knowledge is already present in early visual areas, highlighting how widespread such semantic memories are stored throughout the brain.

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