Science and Technology

New snailfish genome reveals how they adapted to the pressures of deep-sea life

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
A new whole genome sequence for the Yap hadal snailfish provides insights into how the unusual fish survives in some of the deepest parts of the ocean.

Two regions in the canine genome explain one third of the risk of rare blood cancer

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Mutations in two genetic regions in dogs explain over one third of the risk of developing an aggressive form of hematological cancer, according to a new study.

A sibling-guided strategy to capture the 3D shape of the human face

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
A new strategy for capturing the 3D shape of the human face draws on data from sibling pairs and leads to identification of novel links between facial shape traits and specific locations within the human genome.

Call for 'paradigm shift' to fight airborne spread of COVID-19 indoors

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Researchers are calling for a 'paradigm shift' in combating airborne pathogens such as COVID-19, demanding universal recognition that infections can be prevented by improving indoor ventilation systems.

Making AI algorithms show their work

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Artificial intelligence (AI) learning machines can be trained to solve problems and puzzles on their own instead of using rules that we made for them. But often, researchers do not know what rules the machines make for themselves. A new method quizzes a machine-learning program to figure out what rules it learned on its own and if they are the right ones.

Kelp, maggots and mycoprotein among future foods that must be mass-farmed to combat malnutrition

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Radical changes to the food system are needed to safeguard our food supply and combat malnutrition in the face of climate change, environmental degradation and epidemics, says new report.

What makes plant cell walls both strong and extensible?

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
A plant cell wall's unique ability to expand without weakening or breaking is due to the movement of its cellulose skeleton, according to new research that models the cell wall. The new study presents a new concept of the plant cell wall, gives insights into plant cell growth, and could provide inspiration for the design of polymeric materials.

Brain mechanism of curiosity unraveled

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Researchers have discovered a new brain circuit underlying curiosity and novelty seeking behavior. Using several innovative techniques, the scientists uncovered a whole path of multiple brain regions that converts curiosity into action in mice.

Cancer has ripple effect on distant tissues

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
A new study with zebrafish shows that a deadly form of skin cancer -- melanoma -- alters the metabolism of healthy tissues elsewhere in the body. The research suggests that these other tissues could potentially be targeted to help treat cancer.

Researchers identify a missing piece of the Lyme disease puzzle

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Epidemic. Pandemic. These terms have become second nature to us, popping up in everyday conversation, and for good reason -- COVID-19 is the latest pandemic to pose a threat to humanity. But in recent months, far less attention has been paid to another widely spread problem that has been proliferating since the late 1970s: Lyme disease.

Fossilized tracks show earliest known evidence of mammals at the seashore

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Researchers report the discovery of several sets of fossilized tracks, likely from the brown bear-sized Coryphodon, that represent the earliest known evidence of mammals gathering near an ocean.

Causes of concrete and asphalt deterioration explained

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Scientists reveal that the deterioration of modern concrete and asphalt structures is due to the presence of trace quantities of organic matter in these structures.

The emergence of cooperation

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Cooperation plays a crucial role in evolution. A team of scientists has now created a new model that shows how different kinds of cooperative strategies among humans develop. Using their unified framework, they show how an individual's experience and the reputation of others influence the emergence of successful cooperation.

Carbon emissions from dams considerably underestimated so far

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Among other things, dams serve as reservoirs for drinking water, agricultural irrigation, or the operation of hydropower plants. Until now, it had been assumed that dams act as net carbon stores. Researchers have now shown that dams release twice as much carbon as they store.

Adolescents and older adults lack attention in social situations

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
New research has found that adolescents and older adults pay less attention to social cues in real-world interactions than young adults.

Songbird neurons for advanced cognition mirror the physiology of mammalian counterparts

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
Neuroscientists examining genetically identified neurons in a songbird's forebrain discovered a remarkable landscape of physiology, auditory coding and network roles that mirrored those in the brains of mammals.

A new approach to identify genetic boundaries of species could also impact policy

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
A new approach to genomic species delineation could impact policy and lend clarity to legislation for designating a species as endangered or at risk. Evolutionary biologists model the process of speciation, which follows population formation, improving on current species delineation methods.

Study: Drivers with shift work sleep disorder 3x more likely to be in crash

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
People who work nontraditional work hours, such as 11 p.m.-7 a.m., or the 'graveyard' shift, are more likely than people with traditional daytime work schedules to develop a chronic medical condition -- shift work sleep disorder -- that disrupts their sleep. According to researchers, people who develop this condition are also three times more likely to be involved in a vehicle accident.

Tiny cloud of atoms can be turned from a heat engine into a cooler

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
The demonstration that a tiny cloud of atoms can be turned from a heat engine into a cooler by cranking up the interactions between the particles provides both deep fundamental insight and a possible template for more efficient thermoelectric devices.

Evolutionary biologists discover mechanism that enables lizards to breathe underwater

Science Daily - 13/05/2021
A team of evolutionary biologists has shown that Anolis lizards, or anoles, are able to breathe underwater with the aid of a bubble clinging to their snouts. Some anoles are stream specialists, and these semi-aquatic species frequently dive underwater to avoid predators, where they can remain submerged for as long as 18 minutes. The researchers termed the process 'rebreathing' after the scuba-diving technology.

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