Science and Technology

Observations confirm that aerosols formed from plant emitted compounds can make clouds brighter

Science Daily - 24/09/2021
An observational study confirms a prevailing theory that volatile organic compounds emitted by vegetation form atmospheric aerosols which make clouds more reflective.

Radiation therapy reprograms heart muscle cells to younger state

Science Daily - 24/09/2021
New research suggests that radiation therapy can reprogram heart muscle cells to what appears to be a younger state, fixing electrical problems that cause a life-threatening arrhythmia without the need for a long-used, invasive procedure.

Machine learning uncovers 'genes of importance' in agriculture and medicine

Science Daily - 24/09/2021
Machine learning can pinpoint 'genes of importance' that help crops to grow with less fertilizer, according to a new study. It can also predict additional traits in plants and disease outcomes in animals, illustrating its applications beyond agriculture.

Lab grown tumor models could improve treatment for pancreatic cancer

Science Daily - 24/09/2021
An international team of scientists have created a three-dimensional (3D) pancreatic cancer tumour model in the laboratory, combining a bioengineered matrix and patient-derived cells that could be used to develop and test targeted treatments.

Systems approach helps assess public health impacts of changing climate, environmental policies

Science Daily - 24/09/2021
Scientists offer an alternative way to understand and minimize health impacts from human-caused changes to the climate and environment.

Novel small molecule potently attenuates neuroinflammation in brain and glial cells

Science Daily - 24/09/2021
In a preclinical study show that their small molecule drug, SRI-42127, can potently attenuate the triggers of neuroinflammation. These experiments in glial cell cultures and mice now open the door to testing SRI-42127 in models of acute and chronic neurological injury.

If endangered primates disappear, so will their parasites. That's actually a problem

Science Daily - 24/09/2021
People are more aware of the plight of endangered gorillas than of gorillas' gut worms, and are understandably more enamored with mouse lemurs than their mites. Half of the world's roughly 500 primate species are at risk of extinction due to human activities such as hunting, trapping and deforestation. But the demise of the world's threatened primates could also trigger even more extinctions for the parasites that lurk within them, finds a new study.

Aging the unageable: New way to age lobsters

Science Daily - 24/09/2021
Researchers have developed a new way of determining the age of a lobster based on its DNA. Lobsters are notoriously difficult to age. Nobody knows exactly how old they can get, and some experts have estimated they could live on the ocean floor for as long as a century or more. Until now, a lobster's age has usually been estimated using its size - but this is inaccurate as individual lobsters grow at different rates. The new DNA-based technique could help manage lobster fisheries more sustainably.

A new solid-state battery surprises the researchers who created it

Science Daily - 24/09/2021
Engineers created a new type of battery that weaves two promising battery sub-fields into a single battery. The battery uses both a solid state electrolyte and an all-silicon anode, making it a silicon all-solid-state battery. The initial rounds of tests show that the new battery is safe, long lasting, and energy dense. It holds promise for a wide range of applications from grid storage to electric vehicles.

Wide heads help sperm swim together

Science Daily - 24/09/2021
Researchers used machine learning to discover that sperm with a wide head relative to length are more likely to clump together and swim collectively, a rare behavior that sometimes helps them reach an egg faster. The study provides a new method for understanding how form and function are related in cells with complex behaviors in all animals, including humans.

Scientists develop artificial intelligence method to predict anti-cancer immunity

Science Daily - 24/09/2021
Researchers and data scientists have developed an artificial intelligence technique that can identify which cell surface peptides produced by cancer cells called neoantigens are recognized by the immune system.

Earliest evidence of human activity found in the Americas

Science Daily - 24/09/2021
Footprints at White Sands National Park in New Mexico confirm human presence over at least two millennia, with the oldest tracks dating back 23,000 years.

Mapping words to colors

Science Daily - 24/09/2021
While the range of colors your eyes may perceive extends beyond the words language provides, languages around the globe are remarkably similar in how they partition the space of colors into a vocabulary. Yet differences exist. In a study examining 130 diverse languages around the world, researchers developed an algorithm to infer the communicative needs that different linguistic communities place on colors.

Vampire bats may coordinate with ‘friends’ over a bite to eat

Science Daily - 24/09/2021
Vampire bats that form bonds in captivity and continue those 'friendships' in the wild also hunt together, meeting up over a meal after independent departures from the roost, according to a new study.

Decoding birds’ brain signals into syllables of song

Science Daily - 24/09/2021
Researchers can predict what syllables a bird will sing -- and when it will sing them -- by reading electrical signals in its brain, reports a new study. The work is an early step toward building vocal prostheses for humans who have lost the ability to speak.

More support needed for pollination services in agriculture

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
The global decline of pollinators threatens the reproductive success of 90 per cent of all wild plants globally and the yield of 85 per cent of the world's most important crops. Pollinators -- mainly bees and other insects -- contribute to 35 per cent of the world's food production. The service provided by pollinators is particularly important for securing food produced by the more than two billion small farmers worldwide. An agroecologist points out that yields could be increased if pollinators were encouraged.

Carbon dioxide reactor makes 'Martian fuel'

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
Engineers are developing new ways to convert greenhouse gases to fuel to address climate change and get astronauts home from Mars.

An estrogen receptor that promotes cancer also causes drug resistance

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
Cancer cells proliferate despite a myriad of stresses -- from oxygen deprivation to chemotherapy -- that would kill any ordinary cell. Now, researchers have gained insight into how they may be doing this through the downstream activity of a powerful estrogen receptor. The discovery offers clues to overcoming resistance to therapies like tamoxifen that are used in many types of breast cancer.

The defensive arsenal of plant roots

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
Plants adapt to their nutritional needs by modifying the permeability of their roots through the production or degradation of a cork-like layer called suberin. By studying the regulation of this protective layer in Arabidopsis thaliana, an international team has discovered four molecular factors responsible for the genetic activation of suberin. The identification of these factors allowed the production of plants with roots that are continuously covered -- or, on the contrary, completely devoid -- of suberin. These factors are of major interest for the selection of plants more resistant to environmental stresses.

Engineers introduce a new approach for recycling plastics

Science Daily - 23/09/2021
Engineers have come up with a revolutionary new method for tackling plastic pollution by harnessing the inner workings of proteins. The result? A whole new way of looking at plastic recycling.

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