Science and Technology

No more stressing out over structural formulas

Science Daily - 28/06/2024
Structural formulas are a source of dread for many students, but they're an essential tool in biology lessons. A study has now shown that the stress levels of students working with chemical formulas are significantly reduced if they are given simple tips on how to deal with these formulas.

New materials: Synthetic pathway for promising nitride compounds discovered

Science Daily - 28/06/2024
Chemists have successfully synthesized Ruddlesden-Popper nitrides for the first time, opening the door to new materials with unique properties.

Antarctic ice shelves hold twice as much meltwater as previously thought

Science Daily - 28/06/2024
Slush -- water-soaked snow -- makes up more than half of all meltwater on the Antarctic ice shelves during the height of summer, yet is poorly accounted for in regional climate models. The findings could have profound implications for ice shelf stability and sea level rise.

First specific PET scan for TB could enable more effective treatment

Science Daily - 28/06/2024
A more accurate way to scan for tuberculosis (TB) has been developed, using positron emission tomography (PET). The team has developed a new radiotracer, which is taken up by live TB bacteria in the body. Radiotracers are radioactive compounds which give off radiation that can be detected by scanners and turned into a 3D image. The new radiotracer, called FDT, enables PET scans to be used for the first time to accurately pinpoint when and where the disease is still active in a patient's lungs.

Ammonites' fate sealed by meteor strike that wiped out dinosaurs

Science Daily - 28/06/2024
Ammonites were not in decline before their extinction, scientists have found.

New mathematical model sheds light on the absence of breastfeeding in male mammals

Science Daily - 28/06/2024
Mathematicians ave put forward a hypothesis which suggests that the reason male mammals don't breastfeed might be driven by the rich community of microbes that lives in breast milk and which plays an important part in establishing the gut microbiome of the infant.

Long-standing marine mystery solved: How algae get nitrogen to grow

Science Daily - 28/06/2024
Scientists shed light on an unexpected partnership: A marine diatom and a bacterium that can account for a large share of nitrogen fixation in vast regions of the ocean. This symbiosis likely plays a key role for global marine nitrogen fixation and productivity, and thus uptake of carbon dioxide. The newly-discovered bacterial symbiont is closely related to the nitrogen-fixing Rhizobia which live in partnership with many crop plants and may also open up new avenues for engineering nitrogen-fixing plants.

Important step forward in stem cell therapy for rare bowel disease

Science Daily - 28/06/2024
A new study has demonstrated the potential of stem cell therapy to treat those with Hirschsprung disease.

Groundbreaking discovery: Zinc can make crop yields more climate-resilient

Science Daily - 28/06/2024
Climate change, drought, increased temperature and other stressors challenge agricultural sustainability. Researchers have now made an unexpected discovery: zinc plays a pivotal role in the plant response to abiotic stress. This groundbreaking discovery not only sheds light on the intricate mechanisms of plant growth but also holds promise for revolutionizing crop resilience, especially in legume-based agriculture.

Just 4% of teen academy prospects play elite soccer (football)

Science Daily - 28/06/2024
Just four per cent of talented teen academy prospects make it to the top tier of professional football, a new study has shown. A sample of nearly 200 players, aged between 13-18, also revealed only six per cent of the budding ballers even go on to play in lower leagues.

Optimum protection against diabetes: Weight loss plus remission of prediabetes

Science Daily - 28/06/2024
People with prediabetes are advised to reduce their weight in order to prevent manifest diabetes. Researchers have now been able to show that people achieve the best diabetes protection when they reduce their weight and at the same time normalize blood sugar regulation.

New deep-learning model outperforms Google AI system in predicting peptide structures

Science Daily - 28/06/2024
Researchers have developed a deep-learning model, called PepFlow, that can predict all possible shapes of peptides -- chains of amino acids that are shorter than proteins, but perform similar biological functions. Peptides are known to be highly flexible, taking on a wide range of folding patterns, and are thus involved in many biological processes of interest to researchers in the development of therapeutics.

Emotional overeating fed by temperament, caregivers' reactions to children's emotions

Science Daily - 28/06/2024
A research team tracked children from infancy through age 3 to explore the roots of emotional overeating. Parents/caregivers were surveyed about the children's temperaments and whether they consumed food to manage their emotions. The team found that while emotional overeating was associated with temperament and individuals' capacity to manage their emotions, parents' and caregivers' reactions to the children's negative emotions had a significant impact on whether they developed emotional overeating.

Aromatic compounds: A ring made up solely of metal atoms

Science Daily - 28/06/2024
The term aromaticity is a basic, long-standing concept in chemistry that is well established for ring-shaped carbon compounds. Aromatic rings consisting solely of metal atoms were, however, heretofore unknown. A research team recently succeeded in isolating such a metal ring and describing it in full.

Cheaper, more convenient method to detect asbestos

Science Daily - 28/06/2024
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has long been the gold standard for detecting asbestos fibers in air samples drawn at construction sites. But researchers have found that a cheaper, less labor-intensive method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), can work just as well in most cases. The new finding could help reduce the estimated $3 billion spent on asbestos remediation in this country every year.

Last surviving woolly mammoths were inbred but not doomed to extinction

Science Daily - 28/06/2024
The last population of woolly mammoths was isolated on Wrangel Island off the coast of Siberia 10,000 years ago, when sea levels rose and cut the mountainous island off from the mainland. A new genomic analysis reveals that the isolated mammoths, who lived on the island for the subsequent 6,000 years, originated from at most 8 individuals but grew to 200--300 individuals within 20 generations. The researchers report that the Wrangel Island mammoths' genomes showed signs of inbreeding and low genetic diversity but not to the extent that it can explain their ultimate (and mysterious) extinction.

Lie-detection AI could provoke people into making careless accusations, researchers warn

Science Daily - 28/06/2024
Although people lie a lot, they typically refrain from accusing others of lying because of social norms around making false accusations and being polite. But artificial intelligence (AI) could soon shake up the rules. Researchers demonstrate that people are much more likely to accuse others of lying when an AI makes an accusation. The finding provided insights into the social implications of using AI systems for lie detection, which could inform policymakers when implementing similar technologies.

The mechanism behind melanoma resistance to treatment

Science Daily - 28/06/2024
In many cases of malignant melanoma, the effect of targeted treatment is lost over time. A research team has now discovered that a factor secreted by tumor cells is responsible for the resistance. These findings could pave the way for more effective therapies.

Common plastics could passively cool and heat buildings with the seasons

Science Daily - 28/06/2024
By restricting radiant heat flows between buildings and their environment to specific wavelengths, coatings engineered from common materials can achieve energy savings and thermal comfort that goes beyond what traditional building envelopes can achieve.

Relationship between heart disease and spontaneous loss of Y chromosome

Science Daily - 28/06/2024
Researchers found that men with a higher proportion of blood cells missing Y chromosomes have a higher mortality rate from a common cause of heart disease called transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR-CA), informing future treatment for patients with ATTR-CA.

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