Science and Technology

Scientists observe 'quasiparticles' in classical systems

Science Daily - 26/01/2023
Quasiparticles -- long-lived particle-like excitations -- are a cornerstone of quantum physics, with famous examples such as Cooper pairs in superconductivity and, recently, Dirac quasiparticles in graphene. Now, researchers have discovered quasiparticles in a classical system at room temperature: a two-dimensional crystal of particles driven by viscous flow in a microfluidic channel. Coupled by hydrodynamic forces, the particles form stable pairs -- a first example of classical quasiparticles, revealing deep links between quantum and classical dissipative systems.

NASA's Fermi detects first gamma-ray eclipses from 'spider' star systems

Science Daily - 26/01/2023
Scientists have discovered the first gamma-ray eclipses from a special type of binary star system using data from NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. These so-called spider systems each contain a pulsar -- the superdense, rapidly rotating remains of a star that exploded in a supernova -- that slowly erodes its companion.

Ancient mint plants may lead to new medicines/products

Science Daily - 26/01/2023
The mint family of herbs, which includes sage, rosemary, basil, and even woody plants like teak, offers an invigorating jolt to our senses of smell and taste. Researchers have found that these plants have diversified their specialized natural characteristics through the evolution of their chemistry, which could lead to potential future applications that range from medicine to pesticide production.

New collection of human brain atlases that chart postnatal development

Science Daily - 26/01/2023
Scientists have created a new collection of month-by-month infant brain atlas (IBA) that capture fine details of the early developing brain across both space and time.

Researchers decipher atomic-scale imperfections in lithium-ion batteries

Science Daily - 26/01/2023
Scientists have conducted a detailed examination of high-nickel-content layered cathodes, considered to be components of promise in next-generation lithium-ion batteries. Advanced electron microscopy and deep machine learning enabled the team to observe atomic-scale changes at the interface of materials that make up the batteries.

Predicting two common heart conditions

Science Daily - 26/01/2023
Two novel research studies move the needle on predicting two important heart conditions -- sudden cardiac arrest, which is often fatal, and increased coronary artery calcium, a marker of coronary artery disease that can lead to a heart attack.

Health impact of chemicals in plastics is handed down two generations

Science Daily - 26/01/2023
Fathers exposed to chemicals in plastics can affect the metabolic health of their offspring for two generations, a mouse study reports.

AI technology generates original proteins from scratch

Science Daily - 26/01/2023
Scientists have created an AI system capable of generating artificial enzymes from scratch. In laboratory tests, some of these enzymes worked as well as those found in nature, even when their artificially generated amino acid sequences diverged significantly from any known natural protein.

Explained | Japan’s decision to flush Fukushima wastewater into the ocean

The Hindu:Science - 26/01/2023
Japan plans to start flushing 1.2 million tonnes of water from the embattled nuclear power plant into the Pacific Ocean from this year.

New transporter for recycling of bacterial cell wall found

Science Daily - 26/01/2023
A transporter which some bacteria use to recycle fragments of their cell wall has been discovered. Researchers found that the transporter controls resistance to certain kinds of cell-wall targeting antibiotics.

Artificial human skin paves the way to new skin cancer therapy

Science Daily - 26/01/2023
In a new study, researchers have managed to curb skin cancer. The study was conducted on artificial human skin.

Webb spies Chariklo ring system with high-precision technique

Science Daily - 26/01/2023
In an observational feat of high precision, scientists used a new technique with NASA's James Webb Space Telescope to capture the shadows of starlight cast by the thin rings of Chariklo. Chariklo is an icy, small body, but the largest of the known Centaur population, located more than 2 billion miles away beyond the orbit of Saturn.

Early cardiovascular disease linked to worse brain health in middle age

Science Daily - 26/01/2023
People with early cardiovascular disease may be more likely to have memory and thinking problems and worse brain health in middle age, according to new research.

Scientists' discovery could lead to new Alzheimer's therapies

Science Daily - 26/01/2023
A new approach to the study of amyloid-beta, a peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease, has led scientists to findings that could have a significant impact on the understanding and potential treatment of the disease.

Kill dates for re-exposed black mosses

Science Daily - 26/01/2023
Scientists have used radiocarbon ages (kill dates) of previously ice-entombed dead black mosses to reveal that glaciers advanced during three distinct phases in the northern Antarctic Peninsula over the past 1,500 years.

Chatterboxes: Researcher develops new model that shows how bacteria communicate

Science Daily - 26/01/2023
Researchers lay out a mathematical model that explains how bacteria communicate within a larger ecosystem. By understanding how this process works, researchers can predict what actions might elicit certain environmental responses from a bacterial community.

New study suggests that when forecasting trends, reading a bar chart versus a line graph biases our judgement

Science Daily - 26/01/2023
A new study suggests that the format in which graphs are presented may be biasing people into being too optimistic or pessimistic about the trends the graphs display. Academics found that when people made predictions about how a trend would develop over time, they made lower judgements when the trend was presented as a 'bar chart' type graph than when exactly the same data was presented as a line graph or a graph consisting of a set of data points only.

How salmon feed flowers and flourishing ecosystems

Science Daily - 26/01/2023
Nutrients from salmon carcasses can substantively alter the growth and reproduction of plant species in the surrounding habitat, and even cause some flowers to grow bigger and more plentiful, researchers have found.

Why a high fat diet could reduce the brain's ability to regulate food intake

Science Daily - 26/01/2023
Regularly eating a high fat/calorie diet could reduce the brain's ability to regulate calorie intake. New research in rats found that after short periods of being fed a high fat/high calorie diet, the brain adapts to react to what is being ingested and reduces the amount of food eaten to balance calorie intake. The researchers suggest that calorie intake is regulated in the short-term by cells called astrocytes (large star-shaped cells in the brain that regulate many different functions of neurons in the brain) that control the signalling pathway between the brain and the gut. Continuously eating a high fat/calorie diet seems to disrupt this signalling pathway.

Pioneering approach advances study of CTCF protein in transcription biology

Science Daily - 26/01/2023
Scientists used the auxin-inducible degron 2 system on CTCF, bringing the novel approach to bear on a fundamental protein.

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