Science and Technology

Actin affects the spread of cancer in several ways

Science Daily - 25/01/2023
The transport of molecules along the cell's skeleton plays a role in cancer metastasis, researchers show.

Recyclable mobile phone batteries a step closer with rust-busting invention

Science Daily - 25/01/2023
Mobile phone batteries with a lifetime up to three times longer than today's technology could be a reality thanks to a recent innovation.

How regulatory T cells halt aberrant, self-reactive T cells

Science Daily - 25/01/2023
New research findings show in detail how self-reactive T cells -- white blood cells dubbed Teffs that mistakenly attack healthy instead of infected cells, thereby causing an autoimmune or an inflammatory response -- are held in check by regulatory T cells, or Tregs. Tregs quickly deploy molecular measures to control rapid proliferation of Teffs, to make sure inflammation is kept in check during an immune response. Tregs biochemically interfere with the protein manufacturing machinery in Teff cells. This hinders their abundant production of proteins, which occurs just before cell division, the researchers found. This rapid Treg intervention reduces the size and number of Teff cells to appropriately manage the magnitude of the immune response.

Mimicking an enigmatic property of circadian rhythms through an artificial chemical clock

Science Daily - 24/01/2023
An innovative temperature-compensation mechanism for oscillating chemical reactions based on temperature-responsive gels has been developed. Experimental findings, alongside a detailed mathematical analysis, hint at the possibility that circadian rhythms found in nature may all rely on a similar mechanism, allowing their period to remain independent of temperature.

New DNA biosensor could unlock powerful, low-cost clinical diagnostics

Science Daily - 24/01/2023
By flagging disease-associated DNA biomarkers, medical professionals can make early diagnoses and provide personalized treatments, but the typical screening methods can be laborious, expensive or limited in scope. Now, a new biosensor could pave the way to accessible and expansive diagnostics.

Color images from the shadow of a sample

Science Daily - 24/01/2023
A research team has developed a new method to produce X-ray images in color. In the past, the only way to determine the chemical composition of a sample and the position of its components using X-ray fluorescence analysis was to focus the X-rays and scan the whole sample. This is time-consuming and expensive. Scientists have now developed an approach that allows an image of a large area to be produced from a single exposure, without the need for focusing and scanning.

Novel microneedle bandage could save lives by stopping blood loss from wounds

Science Daily - 24/01/2023
A soldier suffers a serious gunshot wound on a remote battlefield or a machinist has a work accident and gets stuck in traffic on the way to the hospital. Secondary, uncontrolled bleeding from traumatic injury is the leading cause of death of Americans from ages one to 46. Chemical and biomedical engineers plan to change that with a novel microneedle patch that can immediately stop bleeding after injury.

Potential hidden cause of dementia detected

Science Daily - 24/01/2023
A new study suggests that some patients diagnosed with behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) -- an incurable condition that robs patients of the ability to control their behavior and cope with daily living -- may instead have a cerebrospinal fluid leak, which is often treatable.

'Friend or foe' bacteria kill their algal hosts when coexisting is no longer beneficial

Science Daily - 24/01/2023
Scientists have detailed a lifestyle switch that occurs in marine bacteria, where they change from coexisting with algae hosts in a mutually beneficial interaction to suddenly killing them.

Study offers first glimpse of how many suffer from previously unknown illness

Science Daily - 24/01/2023
About 13,200 men and another 2,300 women in the United States over age 50 are estimated to have VEXAS syndrome, according to a new study. Long considered a mystery illness until its genetic basis was identified in 2020, the latest findings offer the first indication of how common the illness is domestically.

A butterfly flaps its wings and scientists make jewelry

Science Daily - 24/01/2023
In the 'butterfly effect,' an insect can flap its wings and create a microscopic change in initial conditions that leads to a hurricane halfway around the world. This chaos is seen everywhere, from weather to labor markets to brain dynamics. And now researchers explored how to turn the twisting, fractal structures behind the science into jewelry with 3D printing. The jewelry shapes are based on the Chua circuit, a simple electronic system that was the first physical, mathematical, and experimental proof of chaos.

Economics trump environment to save big cats, say ecologists

Science Daily - 24/01/2023
Rapid economic growth has pushed rare species of big carnivores to the brink of extinction, but ecologists have suggested our appetite to once again live alongside big cats is increasing.

Power of cancer drugs may see boost by targeting newly ID'd pathway

Science Daily - 24/01/2023
Researchers have identified a previously unknown signaling pathway cells use to protect their DNA while it is being copied. Targeting this pathway potentially could boost the potency of cancer therapeutics, the researchers said.

Residential green space is associated with higher birth weight

Science Daily - 24/01/2023
A new study assessed the associations between maternal exposure to green and blue spaces during pregnancy and birth outcomes in 11 birth cohorts from nine European countries, including Spain. The results of the study indicate that proximity to residential green space is associated with higher birth weight and lower odds of having a small-for-gestational-age baby.

Traffic pollution impairs brain function

Science Daily - 24/01/2023
A new study has shown that common levels of traffic pollution can impair human brain function in only a matter of hours. The study was the first to show in a controlled experiment using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that exposure to diesel exhaust disrupts the ability of different areas of the human brain to interact and communicate with each other.

Altered speech may be the first sign of Parkinson's disease

Science Daily - 24/01/2023
Researchers attempted to identify early symptoms of Parkinson's disease using voice data. In their study, the researchers used artificial intelligence (AI) to analyze and assess speech signals, where calculations are done and diagnoses made in seconds rather than hours.

Reducing steel corrosion vital to combating climate change

Science Daily - 24/01/2023
Every year, the United States spends nearly a trillion dollars fighting metallic corrosion, an electrochemical reaction that occurs when metals oxidize and begin to rust.

Camera-trap study provides photographic evidence of pumas' ecological impact

Science Daily - 24/01/2023
A camera-trap study of two ecosystems -- one with pumas and one without -- adds to scientists' understanding of the many ways apex predators influence the abundance, diversity and habits of other animals, including smaller carnivores.

How cells prevent harmful extra DNA copies

Science Daily - 24/01/2023
A protein that prepares DNA for replication also prevents the replication process from running out of control, according to a new study. The work solves a mystery that has long puzzled biologists.

When chronic stress activates these neurons, behavioral problems like loss of pleasure, depression result

Science Daily - 24/01/2023
It's clear that chronic stress can impact our behavior, leading to problems like depression, reduced interest in things that previously brought us pleasure, even PTSD.

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