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Ultrafast magnetism: heating magnets, freezing time

16/10/2021
Magnetic solids can be demagnetized quickly with a short laser pulse, and there are already so-called HAMR (Heat Assisted Magnetic Recording) memories on the market that function according to this principle. However, the microscopic mechanisms of ultrafast demagnetization remain unclear. Now, a team has developed a new method at BESSY II to quantify one of these mechanisms and applied it to the rare-earth element Gadolinium, whose magnetic properties are caused by electrons on both the 4f and the 5d shells.

Behavior resembling human ADHD seen in dogs

16/10/2021
A study involving some 11,000 dogs demonstrated that the gender, age and breed of the dog, as well as any behavioral problems and certain environmental factors, are connected to hyperactive and impulsive behavior and inattention (ADHD).

Flu and heart disease: The surprising connection that should convince you to schedule your shot

16/10/2021
Patients who have cardiovascular disease are at increased risk of serious complications from the flu, according to a new study. The study found that not only are traditional flu-related outcomes worse among some patients with CVD, but infection in those patients also is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Getting the influenza vaccine, however, substantially reduces cardiovascular risks.

Why do we remember stressful experiences better?

16/10/2021
When the brain stores memories of objects, it creates a characteristic pattern of activity for each of them. Stress changes such memory traces.

How bacteria create a piggy bank for the lean times: Basic science discovery could lead to improved biomaterial production

15/10/2021
Bacteria can store extra resources for the lean times. It's a bit like keeping a piggy bank or carrying a backup battery pack. One important reserve is known as cyanophycin granules, which were first noticed by an Italian scientist about 150 years ago. He saw big, dark splotches in the cells of the blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) he was studying without understanding either what they were or their purpose. Since then, scientists have realized that cyanophycin was made of a natural green biopolymer, that bacteria use it as a store of nitrogen and energy, and that it could have many biotechnological applications.

Key protein linked to appetite and obesity in mice

15/10/2021
Researchers have identified a protein that plays a key role in how the brain regulates appetite and metabolism. Loss of the protein, XRN1, from the forebrain, resulted in obese mice with an insatiable appetite, according to a new study.

Researchers find few adverse health effects in wildlife exposed to low levels of radiation from the Fukushima nuclear accident

15/10/2021
Between 2016 and 2018, researchers studied wild boar and rat snakes across a range of radiation exposures in Fukushima. The team examined biomarkers of DNA damage and stress and did not find any significant adverse health effects.

Cellular environments shape molecular architecture

15/10/2021
An important cellular structure called the nuclear pore complex (NPC) has larger dimensions than previously thought. A research team made this discovery using cryo-focused ion beam (cryo-FIB) milling and cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) -- which allowed them to analyze the NPC directly inside cells.

How to program DNA robots to poke and prod cell membranes

15/10/2021
A discovery of how to build little blocks out of DNA and get them to stick to lipids has implications for biosensing and mRNA vaccines.

Discovery of new role for the brain’s immune cells could have Alzheimer's implications

15/10/2021
The immune cells, known as microglia, also help regulate blood flow and maintain the brain's critical blood vessels, researchers have discovered. The findings may prove important in cognitive decline, dementia and stroke, among other conditions linked to diseases of the brain's small vessels.

Contraceptive pill can reduce type 2 diabetes risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

15/10/2021
A study has revealed for the first time that the contraceptive pill can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes by over a quarter in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The research findings also show that women with PCOS have twice the risk of developing type 2 diabetes or pre-diabetes (dysglycemia) -- highlighting the urgent need to find treatments to reduce this risk.

Intelligent optical chip to improve telecommunications

15/10/2021
Scientists have developed a smart pulse-shaper integrated on a chip.

How highly processed foods harm memory in the aging brain

15/10/2021
Four weeks on a diet of highly processed food led to a strong inflammatory response in the brains of aging rats that was accompanied by behavioral signs of memory loss, a new study has found. Researchers also found that supplementing the processed diet with the omega-3 fatty acid DHA prevented memory problems and reduced the inflammatory effects almost entirely in older rats.

Gel fights drug-resistant bacteria and induces body’s natural immune defense

15/10/2021
In the fight against multidrug-resistant bacteria, scientists have developed a new kind of antibiotic-free protection for wounds that kills drug-resistant bacteria and induces the body's own immune responses to fight infections.

Plant-based jet fuel could reduce emissions by 68%

15/10/2021
Replacing petroleum-based aviation fuel with sustainable aviation fuel derived from a type of mustard plant can reduce carbon emissions by up to 68%, according to new research.

Study could pave way for creating safer opioids

15/10/2021
Researchers may have an uncovered new answers on how to create safer opioids. Design a new opioid to bypass the part of brain that feels pleasure, but retain the analgesic properties, which make opioids one of the most effective pain relievers. Researchers looked at how opioids may have become so widely abused.

Monitoring glucose levels, no needles required

15/10/2021
Noninvasive glucose monitoring devices are not currently commercially available in the United States, so people with diabetes must collect blood samples or use sensors embedded under the skin to measure their blood sugar levels. Now, with a new wearable device less intrusive glucose monitoring could become the norm.

Molecular atlas of small cell lung cancer reveals unusual cell type that could explain why it’s so aggressive

15/10/2021
Stem-like cells that make up only a tiny fraction of the total cells in a lung tumor could be the key to stopping the disease's deadly spread, say researchers.

How long can fiber reinforced polymer sustain concrete structures? Scientists answer

15/10/2021
One potential cost-effective way to sustain ageing concrete subjected to harsh environmental conditions is to externally coat the material with fiber reinforced polymer composites. But few studies have looked at the durability of such strengthening. Now, researchers from Korea and the USA conduct a 13-year long experiment to find out.

New model to assess for flood hazards

15/10/2021
A new article presents a new methodology to create a watershed-scale flood model based on LiDAR data.

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