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In your face: Children’s expressions tell the story of poor sleep

20/10/2021
When children are overtired, their facial expressions can forecast social problems years later, according to a new report published by a psychologist.

Scientists develop sperm cells from primate stem cells

20/10/2021
A new study shows that functional sperm cells can be made in a dish using primate embryonic stem cells.

Space between polymer chains affects energy conversion

20/10/2021
Researchers have new insight into molecules that change their shape in response to light. The researchers studying azobenzene-based polymers found that their free volume -- a measure of the space between polymer chains -- was strongly linked with the polymers' ability to convert visible light radiation into mechanical energy.

Better silicon solar panels

20/10/2021
Researchers are applying a new technique to identify defects in silicon solar cells that cause a drop in efficiency. The lessons learned at the atomic level could lead to improvements in the way manufacturers strengthen their products against what is known as light-induced degradation.

Brain activation in sleeping toddlers shows memory for words

20/10/2021
Very young children learn words at a tremendous rate. Now researchers have seen how specific brain regions activate as two-year-olds remember newly learned words -- while the children were sleeping.

Targeted prostate cancer screening could benefit men with inherited cancer syndrome

20/10/2021
Men who inherit an increased risk of cancer through 'Lynch syndrome' could benefit from regular PSA testing from age 40 to detect early signs of prostate cancer, researchers believe. Annual PSA tests were eight times more likely to spot cancer in men with genetic hallmarks of Lynch syndrome than those without. Experts say evidence could be incorporated into a targeted screening program in future.

Novel sugar detector system in the human mouth has implications for designing tastier, healthier beverages and foods

20/10/2021
Scientists describe the first-in-human demonstration of a pathway that uses the sugar glucose, a component of table sugar and high fructose corn syrup, to signal the presence of calories, in addition to the well-studied sweet-taste receptor in taste buds.

Guidance on supplemental breast cancer screening for women with dense breast tissue

20/10/2021
Researchers have made recommendations for clinicians and patients regarding supplemental screening for women with dense breast tissue.

Researchers find novel means of flagging inpatient pharmacy orders for intervention

20/10/2021
Researchers developed a machine learning model to identify medication orders requiring pharmacy intervention using only provider behavior and other contextual features that may reflect these new sources of inefficiencies, rather than patients' medical records.

Small-scale foragers left more than footprints on the landscape

20/10/2021
Archaeological sites like the Great Wall of China and the pyramids can be seen with the naked eye from space, but for ancient societies that did not build, their traces on the landscape are more difficult to find. Now researchers have used satellite data to identify areas in coastal southwest Madagascar where indigenous foragers altered their surroundings.

Bacteria, fungi interact far more often than previously thought

20/10/2021
In a novel, broad assessment of bacterial-fungal interactions, researchers using unique bioinformatics found that fungi host a remarkable diversity of bacteria, making bacterial-fungal interactions far more common and diverse than previously known.

New way to find cancer at the nanometer scale

20/10/2021
Researchers describe a new liquid biopsy method using lab-on-a-chip technology that they believe can detect cancer before a tumor is even formed. Using magnetic particles coated in a specially designed bonding agent, the liquid biopsy chip attracts and captures particles containing cancer-causing biomarkers. A close analysis can identify the type of cancer they are carrying. This, the researchers say, can significantly improve cancer diagnosis and treatment.

Cat bacteria treats mouse skin infection, may help you and your pets as well

19/10/2021
Researchers identify a strain of bacteria on healthy cats that produces antibiotics against severe skin infections. The findings may soon lead to new bacteriotherapies for humans and their pets, wherein cat bacteria is applied via topical cream or spray.

How quickly does the climate recover?

19/10/2021
It took the climate 20,000 to 50,000 years to stabilize after the rise in global temperatures of five to eight degrees Celsius 56 million years ago. Climate change today is causing temperatures to rise and is also increasing the likelihood of storms, heavy rain, and flooding -- the recent flood disaster in the Ahr valley in Germany is just one such example. What we need to ask ourselves in this connection is how quickly the climate can recover from the warming caused by an increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

'Ray guns' let scientists use light instead of DNA to tell plant populations apart

19/10/2021
Using a handheld device that looks a little like a ray gun, scientists recorded how plant leaves on different Alaskan mountains reflect light. And, it turns out, different populations of plants of the same species -- for instance, plants living on neighboring mountaintops -- reflect light differently, in ways that echo their genetic variation from each other.

Ancient driftwood tracks 500 years of Arctic warming and sea ice

19/10/2021
A new study reconstructs the path of frozen trees as they made their way across the Arctic Ocean over 500 years, giving scientists a unique look into changes in sea ice and currents over the last half millennium. By dating and tracing pieces of driftwood on beaches in Svalbard, Norway's archipelago in the Arctic Circle, scientists have determined where these fallen trees floated.

Controllable nanoscale gas-liquid interface fabricated

19/10/2021
When liquid meets gas, a unique zone forms. Variable by nature, molecules can cross from one state to another, combining in unique ways to either desirable or unwanted ends. From heat escaping a mug of coffee to increasing molecular concentrations in chemical solutions, gas-liquid interfaces are ubiquitous across nature and engineering. But a lack of tools capable of precisely controlling such gas-liquid interfaces limit their applications -- until now.

Viral infections could promote neurodegeneration

19/10/2021
Some viral diseases could possibly contribute to neurodegeneration. Researchers found that certain viral molecules facilitated intercellular spreading of protein aggregates that are hallmarks of brain diseases like Alzheimer's. These findings may provide clues how acute or chronic viral infections could contribute to neurodegeneration.

Amount of information in visible universe quantified

19/10/2021
Researchers have long suspected a connection between information and the physical universe, with various paradoxes and thought experiments used to explore how or why information could be encoded in physical matter. A researcher attempts to shed light on exactly how much of this information is out there and presents a numerical estimate for the amount of encoded information in all the visible matter in the universe -- approximately 6 times 10 to the power of 80 bits of information.

Scientists develop new sensor to capture calcium activity in cells

19/10/2021
Researchers have developed a novel approach for detecting the activity of calcium within cells. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of a red biosensor that can directly monitor calcium at specific locations within a cell, a discovery that could aid in better understanding of the molecular basis of human diseases.

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