Science and Technology

Cell 'bones' mystery solved with supercomputers

Science Daily - 27/01/2021
Supercomputer simulations allocated by XSEDE on TACC's Stampede2 have helped solve the mystery of how actin filaments polymerize. Researchers employed all-atom molecular dynamics to show structural basis for polymerization kinetics at polarized ends of actin filaments. This fundamental research could be applied to treatments to stop cancer spread, develop self-healing materials, and more.

A compound that slows bone loss, and a resource for developing treatments to slow aging

Science Daily - 27/01/2021
A compound that extends lifespan in a tiny nematode worm slows bone loss in aging mice. That surprising result comes from a longitudinal and functional study of 700 aging mice, a project that provides a treasure trove of data for researchers aiming to develop therapeutics to slow aging and age-related diseases.

New light shed on behavior of giant carnivorous dinosaur Spinosaurus

Science Daily - 27/01/2021
New research has reignited the debate around the behavior of the giant dinosaur Spinosaurus.

Solar material can 'self-heal' imperfections

Science Daily - 27/01/2021
A material that can be used in technologies such as solar power has been found to self-heal, a new study shows.

Hypertension symptoms in women often mistaken for menopause

Science Daily - 27/01/2021
Pregnancy complications and early menopause increase women's future risk of heart disease. Cardiologists, gynaecologists and endocrinologists recommend how to help middle-aged women prevent later heart problems.

Fixing global biodiversity policy: Avoiding repeating old mistakes

Science Daily - 27/01/2021
Global goals for biodiversity must apply to all member states of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) also at national level. This is one of four recommendations for improving the global strategy for biodiversity. The researchers analyze why the goals have been largely missed so far and present concrete policy options.

Compelling evidence of neutrino process opens physics possibilities

Science Daily - 27/01/2021
The COHERENT particle physics experiment has firmly established the existence of a new kind of neutrino interaction. Because neutrinos are electrically neutral and interact only weakly with matter, the quest to observe this interaction drove advances in detector technology and has added new information to theories aiming to explain mysteries of the cosmos.

When push comes to shove, what counts as a fight?

Science Daily - 27/01/2021
Biologists often study animal sociality by collecting observations about behavioral interactions. These interactions can be things like severe or minor fights, cooperative food sharing or grooming. But to analyze animal behavior, researchers need to make decisions about how to categorize and code these interactions. That gets tricky.

AI used to predict early symptoms of schizophrenia in relatives of patients

Science Daily - 27/01/2021
Researchers have taken a step forward in developing an artificial intelligence tool to predict schizophrenia by analyzing brain scans. The tool was used to analyze functional magnetic resonance images of 57 healthy first-degree relatives (siblings or children) of schizophrenia patients. It accurately identified the 14 individuals who scored highest on a self-reported schizotypal personality trait scale.

Southern Africa's most endangered shark just extended its range by 2,000 kilometers

Science Daily - 27/01/2021
A team of marine scientists has confirmed that southern Africa's most threatened endemic shark - the Critically Endangered shorttail nurse shark (Pseudoginglymostoma brevicaudatum) - has been found to occur in Mozambique; a finding that represents a range extension of more than 2,000 kilometers (1,242 miles).

Melatonin is effective against polycystic kidney disease

Science Daily - 27/01/2021
Melatonin, a hormone commonly associated with sleep-wake regulation, has been found to reduce cysts in fruit flies, according to researchers. It's a finding that may affect the way we treat some kidney diseases and reduce the need for kidney transplants.

Satellite data reveals bonds between emissions, pollution and economy

Science Daily - 27/01/2021
Burning fossil fuels has long powered world economies while contributing to air pollution and the buildup of greenhouse gases. A new analysis of nearly two decades of satellite data shows that economic development, fossil-fuel combustion and air quality are closely linked on the continental and national scales, but can be decoupled at the national level, according to scientists.

Two anti-viral enzymes transform pre-leukemia stem cells into leukemia

Science Daily - 27/01/2021
Viral infections and space travel similarly trigger inflammation and the enzymes APOBEC3C and ADAR1; researchers are developing ways to inhibit them as a means to potentially lower cancer risk for both astronauts and people on Earth.

Researchers simplify the study of gene-environment interactions

Science Daily - 27/01/2021
Researchers have developed a new computational method for studying genetic and environmental interactions and how they influence disease risk.

Ocean toxin a heartbreaking threat for sea otters

Science Daily - 27/01/2021
Heart disease is a killer threat for southern sea otters feasting on domoic acid in their food web. Climate change projections indicate that toxic blooms and domoic acid exposure will continue to rise.

The dangers of drugged driving are outpacing drunk driving

Science Daily - 27/01/2021
A recent study of drugged driving shows that a sizable percentage of individuals reported the use of marijuana and other illicit drugs while operating behind the wheel.

Hospital worker flu shots could mean fewer early deaths

Science Daily - 27/01/2021
Research shows that state laws promoting flu vaccinations for hospital workers can substantially reduce the number of influenza-related deaths.

Invasive mussels now control a key nutrient in the American Great Lakes

Science Daily - 27/01/2021
The spread of quagga mussels across the American Great Lakes has transformed the supply of phosphorus - a key biological nutrient - to the ecosystem.

Genetically-modified mosquitoes key to stopping Zika virus spread

Science Daily - 27/01/2021
In 2016, the World Health Organization called the Zika virus epidemic a 'public health emergency of international concern' due to the virus causing birth defects for pregnant women in addition to neurological problems.

Metamaterial tiles boost sensitivity of large telescopes

Science Daily - 27/01/2021
A multi-institutional group of researchers has developed new metamaterial tiles that will help improve the sensitivity of telescopes being built at the preeminent Simons Observatory in Chile.

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